Improvement of insulin sensitivity by chelation of intracellular Ca(2+) in high-fat-fed rats.
ABSTRACT It has been postulated that sustained high levels of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in the insulin target cells may cause insulin resistance. We evaluated this hypothesis by examining the effect of an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, 5,5'-dimethyl derivative of bis (o-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N' tetraacetic acetoxymethyl ester (dimethyl-BAPTA/AM), on insulin resistance. Insulin resistance was induced in rats by feeding a high-fat diet for 3 to 4 weeks. The whole body insulin sensitivity was determined by the steady state glucose infusion rate (GIR) under euglycemic hyperinsulinemic (6 mU x kg(-1) x min(-1)) clamps. Compared with control rats, the high-fat diet (HFD) fed rats showed significantly lower GIR (12.2 +/- 0.7 v 20.2 +/- 0.9 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1); P <.01). In the HFD rats, an intravenous injection of dimethyl-BAPTA/AM (6 mg/kg) 90 minutes before the clamps significantly increased GIR to 16.3 +/- 0.9 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1) (P <.02), reversing insulin resistance by about 50%; but this intervention had no effect in the controls. This increase in GIR by dimethyl-BAPTA/AM was observed without an increase in femoral artery blood flow, indicating that the chelator increased GIR directly through improving cellular responsiveness to insulin. The stimulatory effect of insulin on 2-deoxy glucose (2-DG) uptake by the isolated epididymal adipocytes was reduced by 35% in the HFD rats compared with the control rats (P <.01). Pretreatment of the HFD rats with dimethyl-BAPTA/AM restored 2-DG uptake to the level in the control rats. The direct measurement of [Ca(2+)](i) using fura-2/AM in isolated adipocytes showed that basal [Ca(2+)](i) was significantly higher in the HFD rats than in the control rats (145 +/- 11 v 112 +/- 9 nmol/L; P <.05). An injection of dimethyl-BAPTA/AM in the HFD rats lowered [Ca(2+)](i) to 127 +/- 11 nmol/L, which did not differ from the level in the control rats (P >.2). The present study clearly demonstrates that an injection of intracellular Ca(2+) chelator in the HFD rats reverses insulin resistance, as well as normalizes elevated [Ca(2+)](i) in the insulin target cells. The results strongly support that sustained high levels of [Ca(2+)](i) in the insulin target cells may play an important role in insulin resistance, at least in the HFD rats.
Article: Ca2+-dependent cytoprotective effects of ursodeoxycholic and tauroursodeoxycholic acid on the biliary epithelium in a rat model of cholestasis and loss of bile ducts.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chronic cholestatic liver diseases are characterized by impaired balance between proliferation and death of cholangiocytes, as well as vanishing of bile ducts and liver failure. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a bile acid widely used for the therapy of cholangiopathies. However, little is known of the cytoprotective effects of UDCA on cholangiocytes. Therefore, UDCA and its taurine conjugate tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) were administered in vivo to rats simultaneously subjected to bile duct ligation and vagotomy, a model that induces cholestasis and loss of bile ducts by apoptosis of cholangiocytes. Because these two bile acids act through Ca2+ signaling, animals were also treated with BAPTA/AM (an intracellular Ca2+ chelator) or Gö6976 (a Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C-alpha inhibitor). The administration of UDCA or TUDCA prevented the induction of apoptosis and the loss of proliferative and functional responses observed in the bile duct ligation-vagotomized rats. These effects were neutralized by the simultaneous administration of BAPTA/AM or Gö6976. UDCA and TUDCA enhanced intracellular Ca2+ and IP3 levels, together with increased phosphorylation of protein kinase C-alpha. Parallel changes were observed regarding the activation of the MAPK and PI3K pathways, changes that were abolished by addition of BAPTA/AM or Gö6976. These studies provide information that may improve the response of cholangiopathies to medical therapy.American Journal Of Pathology 03/2006; 168(2):398-409. · 4.89 Impact Factor