Patient prosthesis mismatch is rare after aortic valve replacement: valve size may be irrelevant.
ABSTRACT Although small valve size and patient-prosthesis mismatch are both considered to decrease long-term survival, little direct evidence exists to support this hypothesis.
To assess the prevalence of patient-prosthesis mismatch and the influence of small valve size on survival, we prospectively studied 1,129 consecutive patients undergoing aortic valve replacement between 1990 and 2000. Mean and peak gradients and indexed effective orifice area were measured by transthoracic echocardiography postoperatively (3 months to 10 years). Abnormal postoperative gradients were defined as those patients with mean or peak gradient above the 90th percentile (mean gradient > or = 21 or peak gradient > or = 38 mm Hg). Patient-prosthesis mismatch was defined as those patients with indexed effective orifice area below the 10th percentile (< 0.60 cm2/m2).
A multivariable analysis identified internal diameter of the implanted valve as the only independent predictor of abnormal gradients postoperatively. However, there was no significant difference in actuarial survival between normal and abnormal gradient groups (7 years: 91.2% +/- 1.5% versus 95.0% +/- 2.2%; p = 0.48). Freedom from New York Heart Association class III or IV (7 years: 74.5% +/- 3.1% versus 74.6% +/- 6.2%; p = 0.66) and left ventricular mass index were not different between normal and abnormal gradient groups. Patients with and without patient-prosthesis mismatch were similar with respect to postoperative left ventricular mass index, 7-year survival (95.1% +/- 1.3% versus 94.7% +/- 3.0%; p = 0.54), and 7-year freedom from New York Heart Association class III or IV (79.3% +/- 6.6% versus 74.5% +/- 2.5%; p = 0.40). In patients with patient-prosthesis mismatch and abnormal gradients, the majority had prosthesis dysfunction owing to degeneration.
Severe patient-prosthesis mismatch is rare after aortic valve replacement. Patient-prosthesis mismatch, abnormal gradient, and the size of valve implanted do not influence left ventricular mass index or intermediate-term survival.
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ABSTRACT: The concept/phenomenon of valve prosthesis/patient mismatch (VP–PM), described in 1978, has stood the test of time. From that time to 2011, VP–PM has received a great deal of attention but studies have come to varying conclusions. This is largely because of the determination of prosthetic heart valve area [called effective orifice area index (EOAi)] by projection rather than by actual measurement, variable criteria to assess severity of EOAi and the timing of determination of EOAi. All prosthetic heart valves have some degree of VP–PM which must be placed in a proper clinical perspective. This can be done by determining its effects on function and outcomes. For mortality one needs to focus especially on severe/critical degree of VP–PM and determine the cause of death was due to VP–PM. For the period “beyond 2011” a road map is suggested that will have uniformity of assessment of VP–PM and a focusing on the important goals of VP–PM.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 09/2012; 60(13):1123–1135. · 15.34 Impact Factor