Quantitative oculographic characterisation of internuclear ophthalmoparesis in multiple sclerosis: the versional dysconjugacy index Z score.
ABSTRACT There is a poor correlation between multiple sclerosis disease activity, as measured by magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical disability.
To establish oculographic criteria for the diagnosis and severity of internuclear ophthalmoparesis (INO), so that future studies can link the severity of ocular dysconjugacy with neuroradiological abnormalities within the dorsomedial brain stem tegmentum.
The study involved 58 patients with multiple sclerosis and chronic INO and 40 normal subjects. Two dimensional infrared oculography was used to derive the versional dysconjugacy index (VDI)-the ratio of abducting to adducting eye movements for peak velocity and acceleration. Diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis and severity of INO were derived using a Z score and histogram analysis, which allowed comparisons of the VDI from multiple sclerosis patients and from a control population.
For a given saccade, the VDI was typically higher for acceleration v velocity, whereas the Z scores for velocity measures were always higher than values derived from comparable acceleration VDI measures; this was related to the greater variability of acceleration measures. Thus velocity was a more reliable measure from which to determine Z scores and thereby the criteria for INO and its level of severity. The mean (SD) value of the VDI velocity derived from 40 control subjects was 0.922 (0.072). The highest VDI for velocity from a normal control subject was 1.09, which was 2.33 SD above the normal control mean VDI. We therefore chose 2 SD beyond this value (that is, a Z score of 4.33) as the minimum criterion for the oculographic confirmation of INO. Of patients thought to have unilateral INO on clinical grounds, 70% (16/23) were found to have bilateral INO on oculographic assessment.
INO can be confirmed and characterised by level of severity using Z score analysis of quantitative oculography. Such assessments may be useful for linking the level of severity of a specific clinical disability with neuroradiological measures of brain tissue pathology in multiple sclerosis.
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ABSTRACT: Patients with multiple sclerosis commonly describe visual symptoms that result from several eye movement abnormalities that occur from disruption of critical pathways in the brainstem, cerebellum, and cerebral hemispheres. These abnormalities include internuclear ophthalmoplegia, ocular motor palsy, ocular misalignment, pathologic nystagmus, impaired saccades, saccadic intrusions, and impaired pursuit. Detailed knowledge of these problems and their neuroanatomic localization will aid the physician by guiding diagnosis and therapeutic decision making.Neurologic Clinics 08/2010; 28(3):641-55. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and leading cause of disability in young adults. Vision impairment is a common component of disability for this population of patients. Injury to the optic nerve, brainstem, and cerebellum leads to characteristic syndromes affecting both the afferent and efferent visual pathways. The objective of this review is to summarize the spectrum of eye disorders in patients with MS, their natural history, and current strategies for diagnosis and management. We emphasize the most common disorders including optic neuritis and internuclear ophthalmoparesis and include new techniques, such as optical coherence tomography, which promise to better our understanding of MS and its effects on the visual system.Clinical Ophthalmology 01/2010; 4:1409-22.