The carboxyl-terminal domain of MKP-1 and MKP-2 have inhibitory effects on their phosphatase activity

Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, National Institute on Aging-Intramural Research Program, NIH, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 2.39). 05/2002; 233(1-2):107-17. DOI: 10.1023/A:1015502226940
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Both the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatases MKP-1 and MKP-2 exert important feedback control of MAPK-mediated signaling events. The function of MKP-1 and MKP-2 is regulated via complex mechanisms, ranging from increased transcription of the MKP-1 and MKP-2 genes to post-translational catalytic activation of MKP-1 and MKP-2 proteins upon binding to their substrate MAPKs. In addition, MKP-1 stability increases upon ERK-dependent phosphorylation of two serine residues in its C-terminus. The C-terminal regions of MKP-1 and MKP-2, but not those of other MKPs, are homologous. To investigate the role of this domain, we have deleted the C-terminal tails from MKP-1 and MKP-2 and examined the effect of these deletions on their enzymatic activity. C-terminally truncated MKP-1 and MKP-2 exhibited, both in vivo and in vitro, substantially greater phosphatase activity towards their substrate MAPKs than did the full-length counterparts. However, C-terminal truncations did not significantly change either their substrate affinity, or their substrate-mediated catalytic activation. Basal phosphatase activity of the truncated proteins was also significantly higher than that of the wild-type counterparts. Collectively, these results suggest that the C-terminal domain may potentially play a role in the regulation of MKP-1 and MKP-2.

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    • "However, MKP1 transcriptional induction occurs after physiological levels of NMDA receptor activation (Davis et al. 2000), where there is probably no Rsk2 activation (Rakhit et al. 2005), so this mechanism maybe unlikely to explain the feedback action of Rsk2. Equally, we note that MKP1 contains a consensus Rsk phosphorylation site (R-X-X-S) at S334, conserved from rodents to humans, within the MKP1 Cterminal domain – a region that regulates its phosphatase activity (Hutter et al. 2002). It could be speculated that Rsk2- mediated phosphorylation at this site might enhance MKP1 function and thereby suppress subsequent Erk activity. "
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    ABSTRACT: Activated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (Erk) phosphorylates and activates downstream kinases including ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (Rsk2/RPS6KA3) and mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (Msk1, RPS6KA5). Rsk2 plays an important role in neuronal plasticity, as patients with Coffin-Lowry syndrome, where Rsk2 is dysfunctional, have impaired cognitive function. However, the relative role of neuronal Rsk2 and Msk1 in activating proteins downstream of Erk is unclear. In PC12 cells and in cortical neurones, the calcium ionophore A23187-induced phosphorylation of Erk, Msk1, Rsk2 and also the Bcl-2-associated death protein (Bad), which protects against neurotoxicity. Specific knockdown of Msk1 with small interfering RNA reduced the ability of A23187 to induce Bad phosphorylation in both PC12 cells and cortical neurones. Conversely, specific knockdown of Rsk2 potentiated Bad phosphorylation following A23187 treatment, and also elevated Erk phosphorylation in both cell types. This indicates that Msk1 rather than Rsk2 mediates neuronal Bad phosphorylation following Ca(2+) influx and implicates Rsk2 in a negative-feedback regulation of Erk activity.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 09/2007; 102(4):1024-34. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2007.04601.x · 4.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation does not always correlate with its upstream Ras-Raf-mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MKK1/2) signal cascade in cancer cells, and the mechanism remains elusive. Here we report a novel mechanism by which sustained ERK1/2 activation is established. We demonstrate that Pb(II), a carcinogenic metal, persistently induces ERK1/2 activity in CL3 human lung cancer cells and that Ras-Raf-MKK1/2 signaling cannot fully account for such activation. It is intriguing that Pb(II) treatment reduces mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1) protein levels in time- and dose-dependent manners, which correlates with sustained ERK1/2 activation, and that Pb(II) also induces mRNA and de novo protein synthesis of MKP-1. In Pb(II)-treated cells, MKP-1 is polyubiquitinated, and proteasome inhibitors markedly alleviate the ubiquitination and degradation of MKP-1. Inhibiting the Pb(II)-induced ERK1/2 activation by PD98059 greatly suppresses MKP-1 ubiquitination and degradation. It is remarkable that constitutive activation of MKK1/2 triggers endogenous MKP-1 ubiquitination and degradation in various mammalian cell lines. Furthermore, expression of functional MKP-1 decreases ERK1/2 activation and the c-Fos protein level and enhances cytotoxicity under Pb(II) exposure. Taken together, these results demonstrate that activated ERK1/2 can trigger MKP-1 degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, thus facilitating long-term activation of ERK1/2 against cytotoxicity.
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