Effects of gender in social control of smoking cessation

Department of Psychology, State University of New York at Stony Brook, 11794-2500, USA.
Health Psychology (Impact Factor: 3.59). 08/2002; 21(4):368-76. DOI: 10.1037/0278-6133.21.4.368
Source: PubMed


This study of 93 men and 117 women smokers during an ongoing quit attempt examined the roles of gender and social network influences on quitting. For men, social influences appeared to positively affect their ability to reduce their smoking but were less effective for women. Specifically, increased reports of a spouse or partner's influence, and family and friends' influence, were associated with greater reductions in men's smoking 2 days and 4 months post quit date, respectively. In contrast, for women, greater reports of spouse or partner influence and of family and friends' influence were associated with smaller reductions in smoking. Sex differences in social control strategies and perceived autonomy supportiveness of those strategies are discussed as possible explanations for these results.

Download full-text


Available from: Roberta Ferrence,
  • Source
    • "without compromising their status as 'good citizens' (Crawford 1994). Men's propensity to see health as 'women's business' (Norcross et al. 1996) is particularly noteworthy in the context of previous research which highlights the role that female partners play in, for example, promoting healthy eating patterns (Gough and Connor 2006) and supporting smoking cessation interventions (Westmass et al. 2002) among their male partners . Whilst such fi ndings draw attention to the appeal of inveigling the support of women for men's health initiatives, such an approach reinforces stereotypical and sexist notions of women's 'obligations' to undertake the control and protection of health within families, including taking care of men (Crawford 1994), and may inadvertently support the view that 'real men' are not concerned about their health (Robertson 2006). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Contemporary health policy increasingly positions responsibility for the management of health with the individual which reflects newer neo-liberal discourses of health. Such an approach can be seen as problematic in the context of men’s health, with men tending to be seen as largely ‘irresponsible’ towards their own health. This paper addresses this question by drawing on qualitative data on how men conceptualise responsibility for health. Whilst the desire to be responsible for health was borne by most of the men in the study, this was not always reflected in practice. There was also evidence of strategies that men adopted for either divesting themselves of responsibility for health or for legitimising lack of responsibility. In some instances, acting ‘irresponsibly’ was what defined participants as ‘real men’. The implications of these findings for men’s health policy are discussed with specific reference to the recent publication of Ireland’s National Men’s Health Policy.
    Health Sociology Review 12/2014; 19(4):419-436. DOI:10.5172/hesr.2010.19.4.419 · 0.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "While we demonstrated in the previous paper that it was possible for nurses to deliver the quitting message to the fathers of sick children through the non-smoking spouse, it remained unclear whether the brief intervention was effective in motivating women to help their husbands quit smoking. Furthermore, no study has examined the factors inducing women to influence their husbands in this way, although spousal support has long been discussed as a key factor in successful quitting [3-5]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Second-hand smoke is a severe health hazard for children. Clinical guidelines suggest that nurses advise smoking parents to quit when they accompany their sick children to paediatric settings, but the guidelines did not mention what nurses can do if the parents are not with the children. This study examines the effectiveness of a low-intensity, nurse-led health instructional initiative for non-smoking mothers, to motivate them to take action to help their husbands stop smoking. This was a randomised controlled trial and 1,483 non-smoking women, who were living with husbands who do smoke, were recruited when they accompanied with their sick children on hospital admission in general paediatic wards/outpatient departments of four hospitals in Hong Kong. The women were randomly allocated into intervention and control groups. The former received brief health education counselling from nurses, a purpose-designed health education booklet, a “no smoking” sticker, and a telephone reminder one week later; the control group received usual care. The primary outcome was the women”s action to help their smoking husbands stop smoking at 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-ups. A higher proportion of women in the intervention than the control group had taken action to help their husbands stop smoking at the 3-month (76% vs. 65%, P < .001), 6-month (66% vs. 49%, P < .001) and 12-month (52% vs. 40%, P < .001) follow-ups. Women who had received the intervention, had better knowledge of the health hazards of smoking, higher intention to take action, perceived their husbands’ willingness to stop/reduce smoking, had previously advised their husbands to give up smoking, were aware of their husbands’ history of smoking and, were aware that their husbands had made an earlier quit attempt and intended to help them stop smoking at the follow-ups. A brief health education intervention by nurses in paediatric settings can be effective in motivating the mothers of sick children to take action to help their husbands quit smoking. We recommend adding the following to the clinical practice guidelines on treating tobacco use and dependence: ‘Nurses should offer every non-smoking mother of a sick child brief advice to encourage their husbands to stop smoking’. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN72290421.
    BMC Pediatrics 04/2013; 13(1):50. DOI:10.1186/1471-2431-13-50 · 1.93 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "These empirical accounts afford some context towards understanding commentaries about the connections between heterosexual gender relations and health practices. For example, western women are often portrayed as having a positive influence on the health of their male partners (Robertson 2007, Westmaas et al. 2002) as a by-product of aligning to feminine ideals around nurturing, caring and concern for others (Bottorff et al. 2012). In addition, being a woman is the strongest predictor of preventative and health-promoting behaviour and women are consistently depicted as coping more effectively and accepting and providing greater social support than men (Courtenay 2000a, 2000b, Ratner et al. 1994). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sexual health and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing is typically portrayed as a women's issue amid men's estrangement from healthcare services. While the underreporting of men's STIs has been linked to masculinities, little is known about how women interpret and respond to heterosexual men's sexual health practices. The findings drawn from this qualitative study of 34 young women reveal how femininities can be complicit in sustaining, as well as being critical of and disrupting masculine discourses that affirm sexual pleasure and resistance to health help-seeking as men's patriarchal privileges. Our analysis revealed three patterns: looking after the man's libido refers to women's emphasised femininity whereby the man's preference for unprotected sex and reticence to be tested for STIs was accommodated. Negotiating the stronger sex refers to ambivalent femininities, in which participants strategically resist, cooperate and comply with men's sexual health practices. Rejecting the patriarchal double standard that celebrates men as 'studs' and subordinates women as 'sluts' for embodying similar sexual practices reflects protest femininities. Overall, the findings reveal that conventional heterosexual gender relations, in which hegemonic masculinity is accommodated by women who align to emphasised femininity, continues to direct many participants' expectations around men's sexual health and STI testing.
    Sociology of Health & Illness 01/2013; 35(1):1-16. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-9566.2012.01470.x · 1.88 Impact Factor
Show more