A randomized, controlled trial of Promogran (a collagen/oxidized regenerated cellulose dressing) vs standard treatment in the management of diabetic foot ulcers.
ABSTRACT Promogran, a wound dressing consisting of collagen and oxidized regenerated cellulose, is more effective that standard care in treating chronic diabetic plantar ulcers.
Randomized, prospective, controlled multicenter trial.
University teaching hospitals and primary care centers.
A total of 276 patients from 11 centers were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the patients was 58.3 years (range, 23-85 years). All patients had at least 1 diabetic foot ulcer.
Patients were randomized to receive Promogran (n = 138) or moistened gauze (control group; n = 138) and a secondary dressing. Dressings were changed when clinically required. The maximum follow-up for each patient was 12 weeks.
Complete healing of the study ulcer (wound).
After 12 weeks of treatment, 51 (37.0%) Promogran-treated patients had complete wound closure compared with 39 (28.3%) control patientss, but this difference was not statistically significant (P =.12). The difference in healing between treatment groups achieved borderline significance in the subgroup of patients with wounds of less than 6 months' duration. In patients with ulcers of less than 6 months' duration, 43 (45%) of 95 Promogran-treated patients healed compared with 29 (33%) of 89 controls (P =.056). In the group with wounds of at least 6 months' duration, similar numbers of patients healed in the control (10/49 [20%]) and the Promogran (8/43 [19%]; P =.83) groups. No differences were seen in the safety measurements between groups. Patients and investigators expressed a strong preference for Promogran compared with moistened gauze.
Promogran was comparable to moistened gauze in promoting wound healing in diabetic foot ulcers. It showed an additional efficacy for ulcers of less than 6 months' duration that was of marginal statistical significance. Furthermore, Promogran had a safety profile that was similar to that of moistened gauze, with greater user satisfaction. Therefore, Promogran may be a useful adjunct in the management of diabetic foot ulceration, especially in ulcers of less than 6 months' duration.
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ABSTRACT: To determine the incidence of foot ulcers in a large cohort of patients with diabetes, the risk of developing serious complications after diagnosis, and the attributable cost of care compared with that in patients without foot ulcers. Retrospective cohort study of patients with diabetes in a large staff-model health maintenance organization from 1993 to 1995. Patients with diabetes were identified by algorithm using administrative, laboratory, and pharmacy records. The data were used to calculate incidence of foot ulcers, risk of osteomyelitis, amputation, and death after diagnosis of foot ulcer, and attributable costs in foot ulcer patients compared with patients without foot ulcers. Among 8,905 patients identified with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, 514 developed a foot ulcer over 3 years of observation (cumulative incidence 5.8%). On or after the time of diagnosis, 77 (15%) patients developed osteomyelitis and 80 (15.6%) required amputation. Survival at 3 years was 72% for the foot ulcer patients versus 87% for a group of age- and sex-matched diabetic patients without foot ulcers (P < 0.001). The attributable cost for a 40- to 65-year-old male with a new foot ulcer was $27,987 for the 2 years after diagnosis. The incidence of foot ulcers in this cohort of patients with diabetes was nearly 2.0% per year. For those who developed ulcers, morbidity, mortality, and excess care costs were substantial compared with those for patients without foot ulcers. The results appear to support the value of foot-ulcer prevention programs for patients with diabetes.Diabetes Care 04/1999; 22(3):382-7. · 7.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patients with diabetes mellitus experience impaired wound healing often resulting in chronic foot ulcers. Hospital discharge data indicate that 6-20% of all diabetic individuals hospitalized (mostly with type 2 diabetes) have a lower extremity ulcer. Maintaining glucose levels at acceptable levels (below 10 mmol/l) is considered to be an important part of the clinical treatment, but the exact mechanism by which diabetes delays wound repair is not yet known. We studied this phenomenon by determining the potential of fibroblasts isolated from the ulcer sites of four patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus to proliferate in vitro. Controls were fibroblasts isolated from normal skin of the upper leg of five healthy age-matched volunteers and of six non-insulin-dependent diabetes patients. Proliferative capacity was analysed by evaluation of plates after trypsinization and [3H]thymidine incorporation. Fibroblast morphology was studied by light and transmission electron microscopy. Diabetic ulcer fibroblasts, measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation, proliferated significantly more slowly than the nonlesional control fibroblasts (P < 0.00047) and age-matched control fibroblasts (P < 0.00003). After culturing the fibroblasts for a prolonged period in high-glucose (27.5 mM) and low-glucose (5.5 mM, i.e. physiological) medium, this difference in proliferation rate between diabetic ulcer fibroblasts and nonlesional diabetic fibroblasts remained (P < 0.0001 for high-glucose and P < 0.0009 for low-glucose on day 7). Fibroblast proliferation in all three groups was slightly lower in high-glucose than in low-glucose medium, although not significantly at any time-point. Light microscopy showed diabetic ulcer fibroblasts to be large and widely spread. Transmission electron microscopy of cultured diabetic ulcer fibroblasts and nonlesional diabetic skin fibroblasts revealed a large dilated endoplasmic reticulum, a lack of microtubular structures and multiple lamellar and vesicular bodies. These results show a diminished proliferative capacity and abnormal morphology of fibroblasts derived from diabetic ulcers of non-insulin-dependent diabetes patients.Archives for Dermatological Research 02/1999; 291(2):93-99. · 2.71 Impact Factor