The pulmonary health of 66 horses was assessed by a clinical examination and simple supplementary diagnostic methods. Single breath diagrams for CO(2) (SBD-CO(2)) and derived lung function indices were used to determine pulmonary function. The clinical signs in different groups were related to the results of the lung function indices derived from the SBD-CO(2). In horses with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a significant relationship was found between the respiratory frequency and the ratio of Bohr's dead space to the tidal volume (VD(Bohr)/VT), and between the physiological dead space/tidal volume ratio (VD(phys)/VT) and the ratio of the alveolar dead space to the alveolar tidal volume (VD(alv)/VT(alv)), but no significant associations were found between the arterial oxygen tension (P(a)O(2)) and lung function indices derived from the SBD-CO(2). The occurrence of cough, the viscosity of tracheobronchial mucus and the amount of polynuclear neutrophils in tracheobronchial aspirates were significantly related to the expiratory tidal volume (VT), the total expired volume of CO(2) (VCO(2)), VD(Bohr)/VT, VD(phys)/VT and VD(alv)/VT(alv). We conclude that abnormal findings in these clinical parameters indicate a measurable ventilation and perfusion (V(A)/Q) mismatch which is reflected by increases in dead space, VD(Bohr)/VT and VD(phys)/VT as well as VD(alv)/VT(alv).
"Många olika raser drabbas och de första symptomen på bronkiolit är nedsatt prestation samt sporadisk hosta (International Workshop on equine Chronic Airway Disease, 2000). Symptomen kommer ofta smygande (Herholz, 2002). Hostan kan med tiden bli värre, prestationsnedsättningen mer uttalad och hästen kan bukandas kraftigt med en så kallad " kvickdragsfåra " som följd (Robinson et al., 1996). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether volumetric capnography indices could be used to differentiate between horses without recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) and horses with RAO that were in clinical remission or that had clinically apparent RAO.
70 adult Swiss Warmblood horses (20 used for pleasure riding and 50 used for dressage or show jumping).
Horses were allocated to 4 groups on the basis of history, clinical signs, results of endoscopy, and cytologic findings (group 1, 21 healthy horses; group 2, 22 horses with RAO that were in remission; group 3, 16 horses with mild RAO; group 4, 11 horses with exacerbated RAO). Expiratory volume and CO2 curves were recorded by use of a computerized ultrasonic spirometer. Volumetric capnograms were plotted, and derived indices were calculated.
Dead-space volume (VD) was calculated by use of the Bohr equation (VD(Bohr)) and for physiologic VD (VD(phys)). Ratios for VD(Bohr) to expiratory tidal volume (VT) and VD(phys) to V(T) as well as an index of effective CO2 elimination were significantly different among groups of horses. Age and use of the horses also significantly affected volumetric capnography indices.
Ratios of VD(Bohr) to VT and VD(phys) to VT as well as an index of effective CO2 elimination were sufficiently sensitive measures to distinguish between healthy horses and horses with RAO in remission. To optimize the ability of volumetric capnography indices to differentiate among horses in heterogeneous populations, it is important to account for effects of age and specific use of the horses.
American Journal of Veterinary Research 04/2003; 64(3):338-45. DOI:10.2460/ajvr.2003.64.338 · 1.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoscopic scoring of airway mucus quantity and quality has not been critically assessed.
To evaluate mucus scores for 1) observer- and horse-related variance and 2) association with inflammation, mucus viscoelasticity and measured volume.
Variance of scoring within and between observers and over time within horses were determined for airway mucus accumulation, apparent viscosity, localisation and colour, and correlations of mucus accumulation scores with neutrophil ratios in secretions. The relationship of accumulation score to measured volumes of 'artificial mucus' was investigated. Correlations of mucus accumulation, apparent viscosity and colour scores with measured viscoelasticity were tested. Viscoelasticity was compared between tracheal secretion samples collected ventrally and dorsally.
Mucus accumulation scoring showed excellent interobserver agreement and moderate horse-related variance, was related to measured volumes of 'artificial mucus', and correlated well with neutrophilic airway inflammation. Scores of mucus viscosity, colour and localisation showed high observer-related variance. Mucus accumulation, apparent viscosity and colour scores did not correlate with measured tracheal mucus viscoelasticity, but dorsally-localised mucus showed 2-fold higher measured viscoelasticity than ventrally-localised samples.
Mucus accumulation scores are a reproducible measure of mucus volumes in the trachea.
Endoscopic scoring of mucus accumulation is a reliable clinical and research tool. In contrast, apparent viscosity, localisation and colour scores should be interpreted with caution.
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