A retrospective study was carried out on 159 treatment cycles in 148 secretory azoospermic patients to determine whether histopathological secretory azoospermic subgroups were predictive for gamete retrieval, and to evaluate outcome of microinjection using fresh or frozen-thawed testicular sperm and spermatids.
Sperm and spermatids were recovered by open testicular biopsy and microinjected into oocytes. Fertilization and pregnancy rates were assessed.
In hypoplasia, 97.7% of the 44 patients had late spermatids/sperm recovered. In maturation-arrest (MA; 47 patients), 31.9% had complete MA, and 68.1% incomplete MA due to a focus of early (36.2%) or late (31.9%) spermiogenesis. Gamete retrieval was achieved in 53.3, 41.2 and 93.3% of the cases respectively. In Sertoli cell-only syndrome (SCOS; 57 patients), 61.4% were complete SCOS, whereas incomplete SCOS cases showed one focus of MA (5.3%), or of early (29.8%) and late (3.5%) spermiogenesis. Only 29.8% of the patients had a successful gamete retrieval, 2.9% in complete and 77.3% in incomplete SCOS cases. In total, there were 87 ICSI, 39 elongated spermatid injection (ELSI) and 33 round spermatid injection (ROSI) treatment cycles, with mean values of fertilization rate of 71.4, 53.6 and 17%, and clinical pregnancy rates of 31.7, 26.3 and 0% respectively.
Histopathological subgroups were positively correlated with successful gamete retrieval. No major outcome differences were observed between testicular sperm and elongated spermatids, either fresh or frozen-thawed. However, injection of intact round-spermatids showed very low rates of fertilization and no pregnancies.
"Human experiments, however, have revealed that oocyte degeneration after ROSI is not adversely affected by the use of a larger microinjection pipette nor by the presence of a cytoplasmic layer surrounding the spermatid nucleus; the rupture of the cytoplasmic membrane and the nuclear envelope is rapidly achieved after microinjection (14). Sousa reported a low oocyte degeneration rate (9%) in 33 ROSI cycles following the injection of 200 oocytes (14). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intracytoplasmic injection with testicular spermatozoa has become a routine treatment in fertility clinics. Spermatozoa can be recovered in half of patients with nonobstructive azoospermia. The use of immature germ cells for intracytoplasmic injection has been proposed for cases in which no spermatozoa can be retrieved. However, there are low pregnancy rates following intracytoplasmic injection using round spermatids from men with no elongated spermatids or spermatozoa in their testes. The in vitro culture of immature germ cells to more mature stages has been proposed as a means to improve this poor outcome. Several years after the introduction of intracytoplasmic injection with elongating and round spermatids, uncertainty remains as to whether this approach can be considered a safe treatment option. This review outlines the clinical and scientific data regarding intracytoplasmic injection using immature germ cells and in vitro matured germ cells.
"Oocytes were denuded enzymatically (Synvitro Hyadase, Medicult) and mechanically (SweMed, Frolunda, Sweden). After culture in IVF medium (Medicult) for 2 h, they were microinjected as described in SPM . They were then cultured in ISM1 medium (Medicult) for 2 days and then changed to ISM2 (Medicult). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although a large number of studies have been conducted in relation to ovarian response and pregnancy after GnRH agonist and GnRH antagonist controlled ovarian hyperstimulation protocols, most of them used single or combinations of a few predictive factors, and none included the stimulation protocol in the multivariable analysis. The present study was thus primarily designed to investigate the predictive value of the stimulation protocol and to analyze the possible relationships between stimulation protocols and treatment outcomes after adjusting for a large set of variables that potentially affect reproductive outcomes. Factors related to pregnancy achievement and predictive of the number of oocytes retrieved and high quality of the embryos obtained were also analyzed.
To analyze the impact of GnRH ovarian stimulation protocols on the independent predictors of ovarian response, high quality embryos and clinical pregnancy, two groups out of 278 ICSI treatment cycles were compared prospectively, 123 with a GnRH agonist and 155 with a GnRH antagonist, with multivariable analysis assessing outcomes after adjusting for a large set of variables.
Antagonists were significantly associated with lower length and total dose of GnRH, lower length of rFSH, and higher numbers of oocytes and high quality embryos, whereas the agonist presented a higher fertilization rate and probability of pregnancy. Significant predictors of retrieved oocytes and high quality embryos were the antagonist protocol, lower female age, lower serum levels of basal FSH and higher total number of antral follicles. Significant predictors of clinical pregnancy were the agonist protocol, reduced number of attempts, increased endometrial thickness and lower female age. The probability of pregnancy increased until 30 years-old, with a decline after that age and with a sharp decline after 40 years-old.
The models found suggest that not only the protocol but also factors as female age, basal FSH, antral follicles, number of attempts and endometrial thickness should be analyzed for counselling patients undergoing an ICSI treatment.
"An additional problem in these early publications is the definition of testicular failure (NOA), which was not always clearly described and/or not always based on testicular histology. Nevertheless, acceptable results of ICSI with frozen –thawed testicular sperm of NOA patients have been described (Friedler et al., 1997; Oates et al., 1997; Ben- Yosef et al., 1999; Habermann et al., 2000; Kupker et al., 2000; Sousa et al., 2002). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This was a retrospective study to determine if diagnostic testicular biopsy followed by cryopreservation should be the procedure of choice for all patients with testicular failure.
The first part of the study analysed 97 ICSI cycles scheduled with frozen-thawed testicular sperm for 69 non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) patients. The second part focused on a subgroup of 32 patients who underwent 42 ICSI cycles with frozen and 44 cycles with fresh testicular sperm. Sperm characteristics, fertilization, embryo quality, pregnancy and implantation rates were evaluated.
Part I: The average time needed to find sperm was 113 min per cycle and 17 min per individual sperm. Fertilization rate, embryo transfer rate, ongoing pregnancy and implantation rates were 58.4%, 83%, 20.8% and 11.3%, respectively. Part II: The search time per sperm was higher (P=0.016) in frozen (18 min) than in fresh suspensions (13 min). A higher embryo transfer rate was observed in fresh cycles than in frozen cycles (93.2% vs 76.2%, P=0.028). Fertilization, ongoing pregnancy and implantation rates were comparable for the two groups.
Even in a programme with low-restrictive criteria for patient allocation and for sperm cryopreservation, diagnostic testicular biopsy followed by cryopreservation can be the procedure of choice for patients with testicular failure.
Human Reproduction 01/2005; 19(12):2822-30. DOI:10.1093/humrep/deh490 · 4.57 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.