[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sec9p and Spo20p are two SNAP25 family SNARE proteins specialized for different developmental stages in yeast. Sec9p interacts with Sso1/2p and Snc1/2p to mediate intracellular trafficking between post-Golgi vesicles and the plasma membrane during vegetative growth. Spo20p replaces Sec9p in the generation of prospore membranes during sporulation. The function of Spo20p requires enzymatically active Spo14p, which is a phosphatidylcholine (PC)-specific phospholipase D that hydrolyzes PC to generate phosphatidic acid (PA). Phosphatidic acid is required to localize Spo20p properly during sporulation; however, it seems to have additional roles that are not fully understood. Here we compared the fusion mediated by all combinations of the Sec9p or Spo20p C-terminal domains with Sso1p/Sso2p and Snc1p/Snc2p. Our results show that Spo20p forms a less efficient SNARE complex than Sec9p. The combination of Sso2p/Spo20c is the least fusogenic t-SNARE complex. Incorporation of PA in the lipid bilayer stimulates SNARE-mediated membrane fusion by all t-SNARE complexes, likely by decreasing the energetic barrier during membrane merger. This effect may allow the weak SNARE complex containing Spo20p to function during sporulation. In addition, PA can directly interact with the juxtamembrane region of Sso1p, which contributes to the stimulatory effects of PA on membrane fusion. Our results suggest that the fusion strength of SNAREs, the composition of organelle lipids and lipid-SNARE interactions may be coordinately regulated to control the rate and specificity of membrane fusion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous studies show that the depletion of cholesterol or sphingolipids (raft-associated lipids) from receptor-bearing adherent cell lines blocks HIV-1 entry and HIV-1 Env-mediated membrane fusion. Here we have evaluated the mechanism(s) by which these lipids contribute to the HIV-1 Env-mediated membrane fusion. We report the following: (1) GSL depletion from a suspension T lymphocyte cell line (Sup-T1) reduced subsequent fusion with HIV-1IIIB-expressing cells by 70%. (2) Cholesterol depletion from NIH3T3 cells bearing HIV-1 receptors (NIH3T3CD4R5/NIH3T3CD4X4) did not impair subsequent fusion with HeLa cells expressing the corresponding HIV-1 Envs. In contrast GSL depletion from these targets reduced fusion by 50% suggesting that GSL facilitate fusion in different ways. (3) GSL-deficient GM95 cells bearing high receptors fused with HIV-1 Env-expressing cells at 37 degrees C with kinetics similar to that of GSL + NIH3T3 targets. Based on these observations, we propose that the plasma membrane cholesterol is required to maintain the integrity of receptor pools whereas GSLs are involved in stabilizing the coupling of inter-receptor pools.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV-1 uses CD4 and chemokine receptors to enter cells. However, other target membrane components may also be involved. This study examines the role of glycosphingolipids (GSL) in HIV-1 entry into primary lymphocytes and its modulation by an inhibitor of GSL biosynthesis.
CD4 lymphocytes purified from normal or the p-group subtype individuals that were defective in Gb3 synthesis were treated with a GSL biosynthesis inhibitor, 1-phenyl-2-hexadecanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (PPMP). The PPMP-treated cells were tested for HIV-1 replication by measuring p24 antigen production for 7-14 days post-infection and for susceptibility to HIV-1 Env-mediated fusion monitored by a fluorescent dye transfer assay. The effects of PPMP treatment on HIV-1 binding to CD4 lymphocytes were also examined by measuring HIV-1 p24.
CD4 lymphocytes from p donors that are devoid of Gb3, but have elevated levels of GM3 were highly susceptible to HIV-1 fusion/entry. Pre-treatment of primary human CD4 lymphocytes from normal or p-sub-group type with PPMP, significantly reduced HIV-1 replication with no change in CD4 and CXCR4 levels. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection was due to the block in HIV-1 Env-mediated plasma membrane fusion. Binding of HIV-1 to CD4 lymphocytes was not affected by PPMP treatment.
Manipulation of glycosphingolipid metabolic pathways may alter susceptibility of CD4 lymphocytes to HIV-1 entry.
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