Article

Cutting edge: changes in histone acetylation at the IL-4 and IFN-gamma loci accompany Th1/Th2 differentiation.

Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 08/2002; 169(2):647-50. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.169.2.647
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Peripheral T cell differentiation is accompanied by chromatin changes at the signature cytokine loci. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation we demonstrate that profound increases in histone acetylation occur at the IFN-gamma and IL-4 loci during Th1/Th2 differentiation. These changes in histone acetylation status are locus and lineage specific, and are maintained by the transcription factors Tbet and GATA3 in a STAT-dependent manner. Our results suggest a model of cytokine locus activation in which TCR signals initiate chromatin remodeling and locus opening in a cytokine-independent fashion. Subsequently, cytokine signaling reinforces polarization by expanding and maintaining the accessible state at the relevant cytokine locus (IL-4 or IFN-gamma). In this model, GATA3 and Tbet serve as transcriptional maintenance factors, which keep the locus accessible to the transcriptional machinery.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
91 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Immunity to many intracellular pathogens requires the proliferation, differentiation, and function of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). While the majority of effector CTLs die upon clearance of the pathogen, a small proportion of them survive to become long-lived memory CTLs. Memory CTLs can provide protective immunity against re-exposure to the same pathogen and are the principle motivation behind T-cell- based vaccine design. While a large body of cellular immunologic research has proven invaluable to define effector and memory CTLs by their different phenotypes and functions, an emerging focus in the field has been to understand how environmental cues regulate CTL differentiation on a genomic level. Genome-wide studies to profile transcriptional and epigenetic changes during infection have revealed that dynamic changes in DNA methylation patterns and histone modifications accompany transcriptional signatures that define and regulate CTL differentiation states. In this review, we emphasize the importance of epigenetic regulation of CD8+ T-cell differentiation and the likely role that transcription factors play in this process.
    Immunological Reviews 09/2014; 261(1). · 12.91 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Asthma, a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airway, has features of both heritability as well as environmental influences which can be introduced in utero exposures and modified through aging, and the features may attribute to epigenetic regulation. Epigenetic regulation explains the association between early prenatal maternal smoking and later asthma-related outcomes. Epigenetic marks (DNA methylation, modifications of histone tails or noncoding RNAs) work with other components of the cellular regulatory machinery to control the levels of expressed genes, and several allergy- and asthma-related genes have been found to be susceptible to epigenetic regulation, including genes important to T-effector pathways (IFN-γ, interleukin [IL] 4, IL-13, IL-17) and T-regulatory pathways (FoxP3). Therefore, the mechanism by which epigenetic regulation contributes to allergic diseases is a critical issue. In the past most published experimental work, with few exceptions, has only comprised small observational studies and models in cell systems and animals. However, very recently exciting and elegant experimental studies and novel translational research works were published with new and advanced technologies investigating epigenetic mark on a genomic scale and comprehensive approaches to data analysis. Interestingly, a potential link between exposure to environmental pollutants and the occurrence of allergic diseases is revealed recently, particular in developed and industrialized countries, and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) as environmental hormone may play a key role. This review addresses the important question of how EDCs (nonylphenol, 4 octylphenol, and phthalates) influences on asthma-related gene expression via epigenetic regulation in immune cells, and how anti-asthmatic agents prohibit expression of inflammatory genes via epigenetic modification. The discovery and validation of epigenetic biomarkers linking exposure to allergic diseases might lead to better epigenotyping of risk, prognosis, treatment prediction, and development of novel therapies.
    Asia Pacific allergy. 01/2014; 4(1):14-18.
  • Source
    AJP Advances in Physiology Education 12/2013; 37(4):273-83. · 1.24 Impact Factor

Full-text (4 Sources)

Download
117 Downloads
Available from
May 22, 2014