CD46, a complement regulatory protein widely expressed on human cells, serves as an entry receptor for measles virus (MV). We have previously shown that the expression of human CD46 in mouse macrophages restricts MV replication in these cells and enhances the production of nitric oxide (NO) in the presence of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). In this study, we show that crosslinking human CD46 expressed on the mouse macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7 with purified C3b multimer but not monomer enhances NO production. The enhanced production of NO in response to IFN-gamma was observed again with C3b multimer but not monomer. The augmentation of NO production is human CD46-dependent with a CYT1>CYT2 profile. Thus, the reported MV-mediated NO production, irrespective of whether it is IFN-gamma-dependent or -independent, should be largely attributable to CD46 signaling but not to MV replication. Similar CYT1-dependent augmentation of NO production was reproducible with two CD46 ligating reagents, CD46-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) or their F(ab')(2) and MV hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) glycoproteins. Co-cultivation of mouse macrophages bearing human CD46 with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing MV H and F enhanced IFN-gamma-induced NO production. Yet, the NO levels induced by F(ab')(2) against CD46 or MV H/F on CHO cells were much lower than those induced by CD46-crosslinking mAb with Fc or MV infection. Removing the cytoplasmic tails of CD46 abrogated the augmentation of NO production triggered by all three stimulators. Thus, the CD46 CYT1 and CYT2 isoforms functionally diverge to elicit innate immune responses, which can be modulated by purified C3b multimer or anti-CD46 mAbs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mouse cells ubiquitously express CRRY, which is a functional orthologue of human decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55) and membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46), and thus protects cells from homologous complement. NIH3T3 cells expressed minute levels of mouse CD46 (mCD46) mRNA but barely produced mCD46 protein. mCD46 message and protein levels were markedly increased during mouse cytomegalovirus (mCMV) infection. Consistently, mCD46-expressing cells became resistant to mouse complement; primary-cultured fibroblasts from mCD46 gene-disrupted mice showed no increase in protection, resulting in complement-dependent cytolysis. Thus, the marked up-regulation of mCD46 in mouse fibroblast cells/cell lines by mCMV infection participates in host cell protection from complement. By mCD46 promoter deletion assay, the region necessary for induction of the promoter activity by mCMV infection was shown to be restricted to a sequence of 19 bp, which was homologous to the corresponding portion in human CD46, and the promoter regions of early-inducible human CMV UL36 and human herpesvirus 6 UL29. The results were confirmed by mutation analysis of this 19-bp region. We designated this sequence as the CMV-responsive element (CMVRE). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated the existence of a CMVRE-binding factor, expression of which was significantly increased after mCMV infection. Thus, mCMV up-regulates the gene expression of mCD46 via CMVRE and CMVRE-binding factor, resulting in mCD46 protein expression on mCMV-infected cells. Since both the membrane and soluble mCD46retained complement regulatory activity, mCD46 induced by mCMV infection may act as a regulator of systemic complement activation. This represents a unique strategy of mCMV survival in host cells with sufficient replication by circumventing host complement attack.
European Journal of Immunology 10/2002; 32(10):2954-64. DOI:10.1002/1521-4141(2002010)32:10<2954::AID-IMMU2954>3.0.CO;2-2 · 4.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crosslinking of CD46 and CD3 on naïve human CD4+ T-lymphocytes induces interleukin-10 secretion and granzyme B expression. These highly proliferative T-regulatory type 1-like T-regulatory T-cells (Tregs) can suppress an immune response. We propose that this process is important in the prevention of chronic inflammation such as at epithelial borders and in deactivation of a successful immune response. Relative to the latter, once a complement-fixing polyclonal antibody response has been mounted, in most cases, the pathogen will be rapidly destroyed. At this time, the C3b/C4b-bearing immune complexes could initiate the deactivation arm of an immune response by shutting down immunocompetent cells through CD46-generated T-cells. Herein, we review this pathway for the induction of Tregs, focusing on a role for the complement system and especially signaling through CD46 on human T-cells.
Immunologic Research 02/2005; 32(1-3):31-43. DOI:10.1385/IR:32:1-3:031 · 3.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We generated transgenic (TG) mice that constitutively express human CD46 (huCD46) and/or TLR-inducible CD150 (huCD150), which serve as receptors for measles virus (MV). These mice were used to study the spreading and pathogenicity of GFP-expressing or intact laboratory-adapted Edmonston and wild-type Ichinose (IC) strains of MV. Irrespective of the route of administration, neither type of MV was pathogenic to these TG mice. However, in ex vivo, limited replication of IC was observed in the spleen lymphocytes from huCD46/huCD150 TG and huCD150 TG, but not in huCD46 TG and non-TG mice. In huCD150-positive TG mouse cells, CD11c-positive bone marrow-derived myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) participated in MV-mediated type I IFN induction. The level and induction profile of IFN-beta was higher in mDC than the profile of IFN-alpha. Wild-type IC induced markedly high levels of IFN-beta compared with Edmonston in mDC, as opposed to human dendritic cells. We then generated huCD46/huCD150 TG mice with type I IFN receptor (IFNAR1)-/- mice. MV-bearing mDCs spreading to draining lymph nodes were clearly observed in these triple mutant mice in vivo by i.p. MV injection. Infectious lymph nodes were also detected in the double TG mice into which MV-infected CD11c-positive mDCs were i.v. transferred. This finding suggests that in the double TG mouse model mDCs once infected facilitate systemic MV spreading and infection, which depend on mDC MV permissiveness determined by the level of type I IFN generated via IFNAR1. Although these results may not simply reflect human MV infection, the huCD150/huCD46 TG mice may serve as a useful model for the analysis of MV-dependent modulation of mDC response.
The Journal of Immunology 10/2005; 175(5):3252-61. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.175.5.3252 · 4.92 Impact Factor
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