Ligation of Human CD46 with Purified Complement C3b or F(ab)of Monoclonal Antibodies Enhances Isoform-Specific Interferon Gamma-Dependent Nitric Oxide Production in Macrophages
ABSTRACT CD46, a complement regulatory protein widely expressed on human cells, serves as an entry receptor for measles virus (MV). We have previously shown that the expression of human CD46 in mouse macrophages restricts MV replication in these cells and enhances the production of nitric oxide (NO) in the presence of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). In this study, we show that crosslinking human CD46 expressed on the mouse macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7 with purified C3b multimer but not monomer enhances NO production. The enhanced production of NO in response to IFN-gamma was observed again with C3b multimer but not monomer. The augmentation of NO production is human CD46-dependent with a CYT1>CYT2 profile. Thus, the reported MV-mediated NO production, irrespective of whether it is IFN-gamma-dependent or -independent, should be largely attributable to CD46 signaling but not to MV replication. Similar CYT1-dependent augmentation of NO production was reproducible with two CD46 ligating reagents, CD46-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) or their F(ab')(2) and MV hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) glycoproteins. Co-cultivation of mouse macrophages bearing human CD46 with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing MV H and F enhanced IFN-gamma-induced NO production. Yet, the NO levels induced by F(ab')(2) against CD46 or MV H/F on CHO cells were much lower than those induced by CD46-crosslinking mAb with Fc or MV infection. Removing the cytoplasmic tails of CD46 abrogated the augmentation of NO production triggered by all three stimulators. Thus, the CD46 CYT1 and CYT2 isoforms functionally diverge to elicit innate immune responses, which can be modulated by purified C3b multimer or anti-CD46 mAbs.
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ABSTRACT: Mouse cells ubiquitously express CRRY, which is a functional orthologue of human decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55) and membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46), and thus protects cells from homologous complement. NIH3T3 cells expressed minute levels of mouse CD46 (mCD46) mRNA but barely produced mCD46 protein. mCD46 message and protein levels were markedly increased during mouse cytomegalovirus (mCMV) infection. Consistently, mCD46-expressing cells became resistant to mouse complement; primary-cultured fibroblasts from mCD46 gene-disrupted mice showed no increase in protection, resulting in complement-dependent cytolysis. Thus, the marked up-regulation of mCD46 in mouse fibroblast cells/cell lines by mCMV infection participates in host cell protection from complement. By mCD46 promoter deletion assay, the region necessary for induction of the promoter activity by mCMV infection was shown to be restricted to a sequence of 19 bp, which was homologous to the corresponding portion in human CD46, and the promoter regions of early-inducible human CMV UL36 and human herpesvirus 6 UL29. The results were confirmed by mutation analysis of this 19-bp region. We designated this sequence as the CMV-responsive element (CMVRE). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated the existence of a CMVRE-binding factor, expression of which was significantly increased after mCMV infection. Thus, mCMV up-regulates the gene expression of mCD46 via CMVRE and CMVRE-binding factor, resulting in mCD46 protein expression on mCMV-infected cells. Since both the membrane and soluble mCD46retained complement regulatory activity, mCD46 induced by mCMV infection may act as a regulator of systemic complement activation. This represents a unique strategy of mCMV survival in host cells with sufficient replication by circumventing host complement attack.European Journal of Immunology 01/2002; 32(10):2954-64. DOI:10.1002/1521-4141(2002010)32:10<2954::AID-IMMU2954>3.0.CO;2-2 · 4.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CD46 is a type I transmembrane protein with complement and T cell regulatory functions in human cells. CD46 has signaling and receptor properties in immune and nonimmune cells, many of which are dependent on the expression of cytoplasmic tail (cyt) isoforms cyt1 or cyt2. Little is known about how cyt1 and cyt2 mediate cellular responses. We show that CD46-cyt1 and CD46-cyt2 are substrates for presenilin/gamma-secretase (PS/gammaS), an endogenous protease complex that regulates many important signaling proteins through proteolytic processing. PS/gammaS processing of CD46 releases immunoprecipitable cyt1 and cyt2 tail peptides into the cell, is blocked by chemical inhibitors, and is prevented in dominant negative presenilin mutant cell lines. Two human pathogens, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis, stimulate PS/gammaS processing of CD46-cyt1 and CD46-cyt2. This stimulation requires type IV pili and PilT, the type IV pilus retraction motor, implying that mechanotransduction plays a role in this event. We present a model for PS/gammaS processing of CD46 that provides a mechanism by which signals are transduced via the cyt1 and cyt2 tails to regulate CD46-dependent cellular responses. Our findings have broad implications for understanding the full range of CD46 functions in infection and noninfection situations.The Journal of Immunology 12/2009; 184(2):694-701. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.0900522 · 5.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CD46 (membrane cofactor protein), a complement-regulatory protein that participates in innate and acquired immunity, also serves as a receptor for viral and bacterial pathogens. CD46 isoforms terminate in one of two cytoplasmic tails, Cyt1 or Cyt2, which differ in signaling and trafficking properties. Dissecting the functions of the two cytoplasmic tails in these cellular processes has been hampered by the absence of specific reagents. Here we report the construction of Cyt1- and Cyt2-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). These MAbs recognize unique epitopes within the tails and can be used for immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblotting, and immunoprecipitation. Studies of Neisseria gonorrhoeae-infected cells with the CD46 tail MAbs demonstrate the differential recruitment of Cyt1 and Cyt2 to the cortical plaque.Infection and Immunity 05/2006; 74(4):2428-35. DOI:10.1128/IAI.74.4.2428-2435.2006 · 4.16 Impact Factor