Alcohol and Substance Use Disorders as Predictors of Child to Adult Sexual Revictimization in a Sample of Community Women

Miami University, Oxford, OH, USA.
Violence and Victims (Impact Factor: 1.28). 07/2002; 17(3):319-40. DOI: 10.1891/vivi.17.3.319.33662
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Alcohol- and substance-related diagnoses were examined as factors in child to adult sexual revictimization. Three hundred community women completed interviews and self-report instruments to obtain information regarding victimization and to diagnose substance use disorders (alcohol and
substance abuse/dependence). Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors were more likely than nonvictims to meet criteria for both substance use disorders and to report rape (e.g., unwanted intercourse due to threat or use of force, or due to the inability to consent due to the respondent's alcohol
or drug use) and coerced intercourse (e.g., unwanted intercourse due to verbal coercion or misuse of authority by the perpetrator) by acquaintances, strangers, and husbands. In general, both CSA and substance use disorders were predictive of adult sexual victimization, but there were no significant
interactions between these factors. Overall, substance use disorders were related to rape for all women; this relationship was not unique to CSA survivors. Alcohol- and substance-related diagnoses predicted rape by all three types of perpetrators, but CSA was predictive of rape only by acquaintances
and strangers and not husbands. In contrast, CSA predicted coerced intercourse by all three perpetrators, while alcohol- and substance-related diagnoses predicted coerced intercourse by acquaintances and strangers, but not husbands. Results highlight the need to continue the study of revictimization
of CSA survivors, including examination of both rape and sexually coercive experiences by different types of perpetrators. Findings support continued research of substance use disorders as risk factors for sexual victimization among all women.

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    • "Between 1986 and 2002, there were at least 25 published studies on revictimization utilizing college student and community samples representing over 25,000 participants. Other studies have described revictimization in specialized (psychiatric inpatients and outpatients, incest group members, incest victims with dissociative disorders, AIDS/HIV clients, child sexual abuse survivors, prisoner, and female Navy recruits) or convenience samples (Irwin, 1999; Merrill et al., 1999; Messman-Moore & Long, 2002). On the other hand, at least two papers reported that victims of child sexual abuse were not at increased risk of revictimization as adults (Briere & Runtz, 1987; Mandoki & Burkhart, 1989). "
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the fundamental hypothesis that childhood victimization leads to increased vulnerability for subsequent (re)victimization in adolescence and adulthood and, if so, whether there are differences in rates of experiencing traumas and victimizations by gender, race/ethnicity, and type of childhood abuse and/or neglect. Using a prospective cohort design, participants are individuals with documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect from the years 1967 through 1971 and a matched control group. Both groups were interviewed in-person (mean age 39.5 years) in 2000-2002 using a new instrument to assess lifetime trauma and victimization history. Abused and neglected individuals reported a higher number of traumas and victimization experiences than controls and all types of childhood victimization (physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect) were associated with increased risk for lifetime revictimization. Significant group (abuse/neglect vs. control) by gender and group by race/ethnicity interactions were found. Childhood victimization increased risk for physical and sexual assault/abuse, kidnapping/stalking, and having a family friend murdered or commit suicide, but not for general traumas, witnessing trauma, or crime victimization. These findings provide strong support for the need for early intervention with abused and neglected children and their families to prevent subsequent exposure to traumas and victimization experiences.
    Child Abuse & Neglect 09/2008; 32(8):785-96. DOI:10.1016/j.chiabu.2007.12.006 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    • "However, variables such as attributional style, coping patterns, attachment style, parental support and caring, and dissociation do not appear to adequately explain the apparent vulnerability to revictimization of survivors of CSA (Irwin, 1999; Jankowski, Leitenberg, Henning, & Coffey, 2002; Kessler & Bieschke, 1999; Mayall & Gold, 1995; Runtz, 1987). Although alcohol and substance use have been shown to be situational risk factors for sexual assault, they do not appear to mediate the relationship between CSA and sexual revictimization (Breitenbecher, 2001; Merrill et al., 1999; Messman-Moore & Long, 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: Disproportionately high rates of sexual revictimization have been noted among former victims of child sexual abuse (CSA), yet researchers have yet to determine the source of this apparent vulnerability to reexperience sexual violence. This study explores this issue by examining sexual self-esteem, sexual concerns, and sexual behaviors among 402 university women. Compared to women without a history of CSA (n = 348), women with a history of CSA (n = 54) had lower sexual self-esteem, poorer sexual adjustment, and were 2 times more likely to have experienced sexual assault since the age of 14 years. Structural equation modeling indicated that the relationship between child abuse (i.e., CSA and child psychological maltreatment) and sexual revictimization was partially mediated by sexual self-esteem, sexual concerns, and high-risk sexual behaviors. This study emphasizes the need for further research on child maltreatment, revictimization, and women's sexual adjustment.
    Child Maltreatment 06/2006; 11(2):131-45. DOI:10.1177/1077559505285780 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    • "The one study (Mayall & Gold, 1995) that tested for mediation did not find that alcohol use mediated the relationship between CSA and revictimization. The failure of some studies to find interactions between CSA and alcohol-related factors (Merrill et al., 1999; Messman-Moore & Long, 2002) does not support the idea that alcohol moderates the CSA-revictimization relationship. Results of all prospective studies indicate that prior victimization is the strongest predictor of later victimization. "
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    ABSTRACT: There is now widespread empirical evidence that child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors are at greater risk for sexual revictimization in adulthood, but less is known of the mechanisms underlying this relationship. Despite the lack of a conceptual framework to guide research, there has been a recent influx of studies examining explanatory variables, with most focusing on the psychological sequelae of CSA: alcohol and drug use, sexual behavior, dissociation, posttraumatic symptomatology, poor risk recognition, and interpersonal difficulties. With the exception of sexual behavior, the studies reviewed here provide limited or mixed support for the role of intrapersonal factors in revictimization. Future research may benefit from a focus on the function of psychological distress that is expressed as psychological vulnerability, as opposed to individual forms of psychopathology or maladaptive behavior. An ecological framework may be useful as a guide to future investigations, as this model focuses on factors outside of the victim, including childhood factors such as family environment, contextual factors including the behavior of the perpetrator, and societal and cultural factors that impact revictimization. Future investigations should focus on the interaction between victim vulnerability and perpetrator behavior. Implications for prevention programming, clinical intervention, and future research are discussed.
    Clinical Psychology Review 08/2003; 23(4):537-71. DOI:10.1016/S0272-7358(02)00203-9 · 7.18 Impact Factor
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