Anticoagulants and Antiplatelet Agents in Acute Ischemic Stroke: Report of the Joint Stroke Guideline Development Committee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Stroke Association (a Division of the American Heart Association)

Department of Neurology, Arizona Health Science Center, Tucson, Ariz, USA.
Stroke (Impact Factor: 6.02). 08/2002; 33(7):1934-42. DOI: 10.1212/WNL.59.1.13
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with neurologic disorders may develop a wide variety of thromboembolic events, both as a primary manifestation and as a consequence of their underlying neurologic condition. There are many available options for anticoagulation, ranging from warfarin to the parenteral subcutaneously administered anticoagulants to the non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs). Warfarin is orally available, well-studied, and easily reversible in the setting of bleeding, but has a prolonged onset of action, measured in days, and equally slow offset; requires frequent monitoring for dose titration; and has multiple drug-drug and food-drug interactions. Parenteral heparin-based anticoagulants are well-studied and have more predictable pharmacokinetics but are often more expensive, only partially reversible, and require daily injections, which can be difficult for patients to tolerate over long periods of time. The NOACs are easy to administer and have predictable pharmacokinetics but are expensive, not easily reversible, and are not as extensively studied. Specific agents are preferable in some defined neurologic conditions. For acute ischemic stroke, we do not recommend immediate anticoagulation with any agent. For patients with intracranial malignancy (either primary or metastatic), we recommend a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) rather than warfarin or a NOAC. For thromboembolic disease in the setting of spinal cord injury, warfarin, LMWH, or the NOACs are reasonable options. In the setting of VTE or stroke related to antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), we recommend long-term warfarin anticoagulation with an INR goal of 2-3, pending the results of ongoing research involving the NOACs. For cerebral venous sinus thrombosis not related to malignancy or APS, we recommend the use of LMWH in the acute setting, followed by at least three months of warfarin. In this article, we discuss the pharmacology, pathophysiology, and comparative research that served as a basis for our recommendations.
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    ABSTRACT: The majority of patients presenting with an ischemic stroke arrive after the 3-4.5 h time window allowed for intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) administration. Most of the literature on heparin use in acute ischemic stroke does not describe dose-adjusted intravenous unfractionated heparin (IV UFH) without bolus, a common method of administration. This study was designed to test whether an anticoagulation regimen of intravenous dose-adjusted UFH with no bolus, in patients with a contraindication to IV TPA, administered within 24 h of an acute ischemic stroke could be effective and safe.
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    ABSTRACT: Our objective was to investigate the effect of cilostazol in acute therapy for small vessel stroke patients. The neurologic deficits in some patients of small vessel brain infarction will progress even if a patient takes immediate medical treatments including aspirin or other antiplatelet drugs. In Japan, cilostazol, presenting not only the antiplatelet effect but also the arteriole dilation, is used for treatment of ischemic stroke. In this study, acute stroke patients with small vessel occlusion were treated with cilostazol instead of aspirin in the conventional medication after 2010. Therefore, patients between April 2007 and March 2009 were classified into the conventional group (group-con, n = 220), and patients between April 2010 and March 2012 were classified into the cilostazol group (group-cilo, n = 230). Enrolled patients were classified into lacunar infarction (LI) and branch atheromatous disease. Progressing stroke was defined as the increase of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 2 or more within 48 hours. The clinical outcome was assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 1 month. As the result, the significant reduction in progressing stroke was dominant in the LI of brainstem (P = .01). The length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in the group-cilo compared with the group-con (18.6 and 21.2 days, P = .03). Moreover, mRS score at 1 month was significantly lower in the group-cilo than the group-con (1.9 and 2.3, P = .03). In conclusion, cilostazol reduced the risk of early neurologic deterioration of patients with small vessel brain infarction. It is eagerly desired to conduct a large randomized control trial.
    Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association 07/2014; 23(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2013.11.023 · 1.99 Impact Factor