IIIc isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer and enhances tumorigenicity of hamster ductal cells.
ABSTRACT Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are mitogenic polypeptides that signal via FGF receptors (FGFRs). Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) overexpress multiple FGFs, implying a potential for growth modulation. In this study we investigated the importance of the IIIc splice variant of FGFR-1 (FGFR-1 IIIc) in PDAC.
Expression of FGFR-1 IIIc was determined by a ribonuclease protection assay in pancreatic cancer cell lines and in tissues. In situ hybridization was used to localize FGFR-1 IIIc messenger RNA (mRNA) in pancreatic tissues. A cDNA encoding FGFR-1 IIIc was stably transfected into the well-differentiated TAKA-1 pancreatic ductal cell line that is not responsive to FGF5 and does not express FGFR-1.
FGFR-1 IIIc was expressed in 5 of 7 pancreatic cancer cell lines and in the majority of the cancer cells in 4 of 7 PDAC samples. In vitro, TAKA-1 cells stably transfected with FGFR-1 IIIc exhibited increased basal growth; enhanced basal tyrosine phosphorylation of FGFR substrate-2 (FRS2), Shc, and phospholipase Cgamma; and increased activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). PD98059, an inhibitor of MAPK, suppressed the basal growth of parental and transfected clones, but the effect was more marked in clones expressing FGFR-1 IIIc. In vivo, tumor formation in nude mice was dramatically enhanced with FGFR-1 IIIc transfected (20 of 20) in comparison with sham transfected (0 of 10) cells.
Our data indicate that FGFR-1 IIIc is expressed in human pancreatic cancer cells, promotes mitogenic signaling via the FRS2-MAPK pathway, and has the potential to enhance pancreatic ductal cell transformation.
SourceAvailable from: Richard Grose[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is characterised by desmoplasia, driven by activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). Over-expression of FGFs and their receptors is a feature of pancreatic cancer and correlates with poor prognosis, but whether their expression impacts on PSCs is unclear. At the invasive front of human pancreatic cancer, FGF2 and FGFR1 localise to the nucleus in activated PSCs but not cancer cells. In vitro, inhibiting FGFR1 and FGF2 in PSCs, using RNAi or chemical inhibition, resulted in significantly reduced cell proliferation, which was not seen in cancer cells. In physiomimetic organotypic co-cultures, FGFR inhibition prevented PSC as well as cancer cell invasion. FGFR inhibition resulted in cytoplasmic localisation of FGFR1 and FGF2, in contrast to vehicle-treated conditions where PSCs with nuclear FGFR1 and FGF2 led cancer cells to invade the underlying extra-cellular matrix. Strikingly, abrogation of nuclear FGFR1 and FGF2 in PSCs abolished cancer cell invasion. These findings suggest a novel therapeutic approach, where preventing nuclear FGF/FGFR mediated proliferation and invasion in PSCs leads to disruption of the tumour microenvironment, preventing pancreatic cancer cell invasion.Pancreatology 01/2013; 13(1):e10–e11. DOI:10.1016/j.pan.2012.12.032 · 2.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: CW-pumped Nd:YVO4 lasers passively Q-switched with LiF:F2- and YAG:Cr4+ saturable absorbers are modeled and comparatively analyzed. The model takes into account the geometric factor representing the distributions of the orientations of F2- color centers and Cr4+ ions relatively to the corresponding crystalline hosts on the output parameters of the lasers. It is shown that the LiF:F2- Q-switch has evident advantages over the YAG:Cr4+ one in the senses of a much more expanded range of pump powers where the giant-pulse regime is supported in the laser and, as a consequence, potentially higher average output and peak pulse powers accessible.Optics Communications 11/2004; 242(s 1–3):241–252. DOI:10.1016/j.optcom.2004.08.025 · 1.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) are chemoresistant, resulting in extremely poor survival of patients; therefore, novel molecular targets, even in small subsets of genetically characterized tumours, are urgently needed. Tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitors (TKIs) are already in clinical use. The aims of this study were to examine the gene copy number and expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) in 155 patients with PDAC, and investigate the effects of the FGFR-specific inhibitor BGJ398 on FGFR1-amplified pancreatic tumour cells in vitro. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemical analysis of 155 PDACs were performed using tissue microarrays. Amplification of FGFR1 was found in 2.6% (4/155) of cases. Four per cent of tumours (5/125) were shown to express FGFR1 by immunohistochemistry. Sequence analysis demonstrated an activating KRAS mutation (exon 2) in all FGFR1-amplified cases. The FGFR1-amplified pancreatic carcinoma cell line PT45P1 showed high levels of FGFR1 mRNA and protein expression. Proliferation of this cell line can be inhibited using the FGFR1 inhibitor BGJ398. FGFR1 represents a potential new therapeutic target in a subset of patients harbouring FGFR1-amplified tumours. Identification of pancreatic cancers harbouring FGFR1 amplification may be important in preselecting patients and/or interpreting clinical studies using TKIs.Histopathology 06/2013; 63(2). DOI:10.1111/his.12115 · 3.30 Impact Factor