Requirement of yeast RAD2, a homolog of human XPG gene, for efficient RNA polymerase II transcription. implications for Cockayne syndrome.
ABSTRACT In addition to xeroderma pigmentosum, mutations in the human XPG gene cause early onset Cockayne syndrome (CS). Here, we provide evidence for the involvement of RAD2, the S. cerevisiae counterpart of XPG, in promoting efficient RNA polymerase II transcription. Inactivation of RAD26, the S. cerevisiae counterpart of the human CSB gene, also causes a deficiency in transcription, and a synergistic decline in transcription occurs in the absence of both the RAD2 and RAD26 genes. Growth is also retarded in the rad2 Delta and rad26 Delta single mutant strains, and a very severe growth inhibition is seen in the rad2 Delta rad26 Delta double mutant. From these and other observations presented here, we suggest that transcriptional defects are the underlying cause of CS.
SourceAvailable from: Choco Michael Pagayatan Gorospe[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG) gene, encoding an essential element in nucleotide excision repair (NER), has a proliferating cell nuclear antigen-binding domain (PCNA-BD) at its C-terminal region. However, the role of this domain is controversial because its presence does not affect NER. Using yeast RAD2, a homolog of human XPG, we show that Rad2p interacts with PCNA through its PCNA-BD and the PCNA-BD of Rad2p plays a role in UV-induced mutagenesis. While a mutation of Rad2p endonuclease activity alone causes dramatically increased mutation rates and UV sensitivity, as well as growth retardation after UV irradiation, a mutation of the Rad2p PCNA-BD in the same mutant causes dramatically decreased mutation rates, reduced UV sensitivity and increased growth rate after UV irradiation. After UV irradiation, large-budded cells of Rad2p endonuclease defective mutants wane due to a mutation of the Rad2p PCNA-BD. Besides, the Rad2p PCNA-BD mutant protein exhibits alleviated PCNA-binding efficiency. These results show a hitherto unsuspected role of the Rad2p PCNA-BD that controls mutagenesis via cell cycle modulation together with PCNA. Furthermore, the high mutation rate of cells with other NER gene mutations was also decreased by the mutation of the Rad2p PCNA-BD, which indicates that the Rad2p-PCNA interaction might be responsible for mutagenesis control in the general NER pathway. Our results suggest that the drastically increased incidence of skin cancer in xeroderma pigmentosum patients could arise from the synergistic effects between cell cycle arrest due to the XPG–PCNA interaction and the accumulation of damaged DNA via defects in DNA damage repair.DNA repair 04/2014; 16:1–10. DOI:10.1016/j.dnarep.2014.01.005 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As part of the Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) process, the endonuclease XPG is involved in repair of helix-distorting DNA lesions, but the protein has also been implicated in several other DNA repair systems, complicating genotype-phenotype relationship in XPG patients. Defects in XPG can cause either the cancer-prone condition xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) alone, or XP combined with the severe neurodevelopmental disorder Cockayne Syndrome (CS), or the infantile lethal cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal (COFS) syndrome, characterized by dramatic growth failure, progressive neurodevelopmental abnormalities and greatly reduced life expectancy. Here, we present a novel (conditional) Xpg-/- mouse model which -in a C57BL6/FVB F1 hybrid genetic background- displays many progeroid features, including cessation of growth, loss of subcutaneous fat, kyphosis, osteoporosis, retinal photoreceptor loss, liver aging, extensive neurodegeneration, and a short lifespan of 4-5 months. We show that deletion of XPG specifically in the liver reproduces the progeroid features in the liver, yet abolishes the effect on growth or lifespan. In addition, specific XPG deletion in neurons and glia of the forebrain creates a progressive neurodegenerative phenotype that shows many characteristics of human XPG deficiency. Our findings therefore exclude that both the liver as well as the neurological phenotype are a secondary consequence of derailment in other cell types, organs or tissues (e.g. vascular abnormalities) and support a cell-autonomous origin caused by the DNA repair defect itself. In addition they allow the dissection of the complex aging process in tissue- and cell-type-specific components. Moreover, our data highlight the critical importance of genetic background in mouse aging studies, establish the Xpg-/- mouse as a valid model for the severe form of human XPG patients and segmental accelerated aging, and strengthen the link between DNA damage and aging.PLoS Genetics 10/2014; 10(10):e1004686. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004686 · 8.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mutations in the human XPG gene cause Cockayne syndrome (CS) and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). Transcription defects have been suggested as the fundamental cause of CS; however, defining CS as a transcription syndrome is inconclusive. In particular, the function of XPG in transcription has not been clearly demonstrated. Here, we provide evidence for the involvement of RAD2, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae counterpart of XPG, in cell cycle regulation and efficient actin assembly following ultraviolet irradiation. RAD2 C-terminal deletion, which resembles the XPG mutation found in XPG/CS cells, caused cell growth arrest, the cell cycle stalling, a defective α-factor response, shortened lifespan, cell polarity defect, and misregulated actin-dynamics after DNA damage. Overexpression of the C-terminal 65 amino acids of Rad2p was sufficient to induce hyper-cell polarization. In addition, RAD2 genetically interacts with TPM1 during cell polarization. These results provide insights into the role of RAD2 in post-UV irradiation cell cycle regulation and actin assembly, which may be an underlying cause of XPG/CS.12/2013; 3(1). DOI:10.1242/bio.20136403