Increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among psychiatric inpatients with bipolar I affective and schizoaffective disorders independent of psychotropic drug use.
ABSTRACT There are numerous reports of abnormal glucose metabolism, including increased rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus, in psychiatric patients. It remains unclear, however, whether there is an intrinsic relationship between abnormal glucose metabolism and particular psychiatric disorders, because the relationship is complicated by treatment with psychotropic medications that promote weight gain and hyperglycemia. This study aimed to clarify this relationship.
The medical records of 243 inpatients, aged 50-74 years, with diagnoses of major depression, bipolar I disorder, schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia, and dementia were reviewed. Psychiatric and type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnoses, medications, body mass index (BMI), age, gender, and race were recorded. Diabetes rates were compared to age, race, and gender-matched rates in the US general population.
Rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus were: schizoaffective (50%) > bipolar I (26%) > major depression (18%) = dementia (18%) > schizophrenia (13%) (p < 0.006). Diabetic patients had a higher mean BMI (p = 0.01), but not a significantly higher use of psychotropic medications previously reported to be associated with new-onset type 2 diabetes (e.g., phenothiazines, clozapine, olanzapine). Logistic regression revealed that psychiatric diagnosis and BMI were the only significant and independent predictors of diabetes diagnosis. Compared to national norms, diabetes rates were significantly elevated only in bipolar I affective and schizoaffective patients.
This study was a retrospective chart review of older, hospitalized patients.
This is the first published study to show an increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among psychiatric patients with particular psychiatric illnesses independent of the effects of age, race, gender, medication, and body mass. This finding, which requires replication in a larger scale, prospective study, suggests an intrinsic relationship between abnormal glucose metabolism and bipolar I affective and schizoaffective disorders.
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ABSTRACT: To review the data with respect to prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in bipolar disorder patients. Electronic searches were done in PUBMED, Google Scholar and Science direct. From 2004 to June 2011, 34 articles were found which reported on the prevalence of MetS. The sample size of these studies varied from 15 to 822 patients, and the rates of MetS vary widely from 16.7% to 67% across different studies. None of the sociodemographic variable has emerged as a consistent risk factor for MetS. Among the clinical variables longer duration of illness, bipolar disorder- I, with greater number of lifetime depressive and manic episodes, and with more severe and difficult-to-treat index affective episode, with depression at onset and during acute episodes, lower in severity of mania during the index episode, later age of onset at first manic episode, later age at first treatment for the first treatment for both phases, less healthy diet as rated by patients themselves, absence of physical activity and family history of diabetes mellitus have been reported as clinical risk factors of MetS. Data suggests that metabolic syndrome is fairly prevalent in bipolar disorder patients.Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine 04/2012; 34(2):110-8.
Article: Co-prescription of medication for bipolar disorder and diabetes mellitus: a nationwide population-based study with focus on gender differences.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Studies have shown a correlation between bipolar disorder and diabetes mellitus. It is unclear if this correlation is a part of common pathophysiological pathways, or if medication for bipolar disorder has negative effects on blood sugar regulation. METHODS: The Norwegian prescription database was analyzed. Prescriptions for lithium, lamotrigine, carbamazepine and valproate were used as proxies for bipolar disorder. Prescriptions for insulin and oral anti-diabetic agents were used as proxies for diabetes mellitus. We explored the association between medication for bipolar disorder and diabetes medication by logistic regression RESULTS: We found a strong association between concomitant use of medication to treat diabetes mellitus and mood stabilizers for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Females had a 30% higher risk compared to men of being treated for both disorders. Persons using oral anti-diabetic agents had higher odds of receiving valproate than either lithium or lamotrigine. Use of insulin as monotherapy seemed to have lower odds than oral anti-diabetic agents of co-prescription of mood stabilizers, compared to the general population. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a strong association between the use of mood stabilizers and anti-diabetic agents. The association was stronger among women than men.BMC Medicine 11/2012; 10(1):148. · 6.03 Impact Factor
Article: Antipsychotic medications, glutamate, and cell death: A hidden, but common medication side effect?[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We hypothesize the interaction between antipsychotic medications and regulation of extracellular glutamate which has gone largely unnoticed in the medical community has significant clinical importance. Typical antipsychotic medications such as haloperidol elevate extracellular glutamate because they exert antagonist effects on dopamine D(2) and serotonin 5HT(1A) receptors. In contrast, serotonin 5HT(2A) receptor antagonists inhibit glutamate release. Glutamate is potentially excitotoxic through effects on ionotropic receptor channels and may exert synergistic effects with other neurotoxic pathways. In contrast to typical antipsychotic drugs, pharmacological properties of atypical antipsychotic medications at dopamine D(2), serotonin 5HT(1A) and 5HT(2A) receptors limit extracellular glutamate and may theoretically be neuroprotective in certain clinical settings. In this review we discuss three common clinical settings in which typical antipsychotic medications may potentiate neurotoxicity by elevating extracellular glutamate. The most common clinical setting, hypoglycemia during combined use of antipsychotic medications and insulin, presents a theoretical risk for 35 million diabetic patients worldwide using antipsychotic medications. Antipsychotic medication treatment during hypoxic episodes in the intensive care unit and following traumatic brain injury are two other common clinical settings in which this interaction poses theoretical risk. Further study is needed to test hypothesized risk mechanisms, and determine clinical and epidemiological consequences of these exposures.Medical Hypotheses 12/2012; · 1.39 Impact Factor