Alkaptonuria in the Dominican Republic: identification of the founder AKU mutation and further evidence of mutation hot spots in the HGO gene.

Unidad de Patología Molecular, Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Av Reyes Católicos 2, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
Journal of Medical Genetics (Impact Factor: 5.7). 08/2002; 39(7):E40. DOI: 10.1136/jmg.39.7.e40
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Enzymatic loss in alkaptonuria (AKU), an autosomal recessive disorder, is caused by mutations in the homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase (HGD) gene, which decrease or completely inactivate the function of the HGD protein to metabolize homogentisic acid (HGA). AKU shows a very low prevalence (1:100,000-250,000) in most ethnic groups, but there are countries with much higher incidence, such as Slovakia and the Dominican Republic. In this work, we report 11 novel HGD mutations identified during analysis of 36 AKU patients and 41 family members from 27 families originating from 9 different countries, mainly from Slovakia and France. In Slovak patients, we identified two additional mutations, thus a total number of HGD mutations identified in this small country is 12. In order to record AKU-causing mutations and variants of the HGD gene, we have created a HGD mutation database that is open for future submissions and is available online ( ). It is founded on the Leiden Open (source) Variation Database (LOVD) system and includes data from the original AKU database ( ) and also all so far reported variants and AKU patients. Where available, HGD-haplotypes associated with the mutations are also presented. Currently, this database contains 148 unique variants, of which 115 are reported pathogenic mutations. It provides a valuable tool for information exchange in AKU research and care fields and certainly presents a useful data source for genotype-phenotype correlations and also for future clinical trials.
    JIMD reports. 01/2012; 4:55-65.
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    ABSTRACT: Ochronosis / Alkaptonuria is a tyrosine metabolism disorder where accumulation of homogentisic acid, in eye, skin, cartilage and several other connective tissues leads to a black pigmentation of the affected tissues. It is autosomal-recessive inherited in men with a frequency of 1-9/1,000,000. While it is clear that pigment deposits lead to joint destruction, renal stone formation and cardiac valvulopathy respectively, the significance of ocular findings is still unclear. We therefore aim to evaluate the frequency and clinical significance of ocular findings in ochronosis and discuss possible therapeutic options. Systematic review of literature via Medline and Web of Science. Only case reports in English, German, French, Spanish or Italian documenting detailed ophthalmologic examination were included. Our search revealed 36 case reports including 40 patients. Average age at the onset of ocular signs was 40.6 years. The most frequent sign was symmetric brown sclera pigmentation present in 82.5 percent of the patients. "Oil-drops", brown pigment spots in the limbus are generally considered pathognomonic but were a little less frequent (75 percent). Vermiform pigment deposits at the level of the conjunctiva or increased conjunctival vessel diameter is also frequent. We found an increased incidence of central vein occlusion and elevated intraocular pressure going along with chamber angle hyperpigmentation. Another condition observed twice is rapid progressive astigmatism attributable to corneoscleral pigment accumulation. Our observations suggest that ocular findings are of double relevance. First, characteristic ocular findings can anticipate the time of diagnosis and second, ocular findings may complicate to various conditions putting sight at risk. Opthalmologists and general physicians should be aware of both. Therapeutic options include protein restriction, administration of high dose vitamin C or nitisonone. Evidence for all of them is limited.
    BMC Ophthalmology 01/2014; 14(1):12. · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alkaptonuria (AKU) is an ultra-rare metabolic disorder of the catabolic pathway of tyrosine and phenylalanine that has been poorly characterized at molecular level. As a genetic disease, AKU is present at birth, but its most severe manifestations are delayed due to the deposition of a dark-brown pigment (ochronosis) in connective tissues. The reasons for such a delayed manifestation have not been clarified yet, though several lines of evidence suggest that the metabolite accumulated in AKU sufferers (homogentisic acid) is prone to auto-oxidation and induction of oxidative stress. The clarification of the pathophysiological molecular mechanisms of AKU would allow a better understanding of the disease, help find a cure for AKU and provide a model for more common rheumatic diseases. With this aim, we have shown how proteomics and redox proteomics might successfully overcome the difficulties of studying a rare disease such as AKU and the limitations of the hitherto adopted approaches.
    Expert Review of Proteomics 12/2013; 10(6):521-35. · 3.90 Impact Factor


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