Preparation of metal ion buffers for biological experimentation: a methods approach with emphasis on iron and zinc.
ABSTRACT Transition metal ions are a challenge to study in physiology because of problems associated with solubility, oxidation, binding, and attaining appropriate free activities in solution. This review discusses these problems and potential ways of accommodating them. Special attention is given to iron and zinc ions, but many of the concepts can be applied for studying other transition metals. Selection of reagents appropriate for metal work (including water, salts, noncomplexing pH buffers) is briefly discussed. Calculation of the solubility product (K(sp)) for common iron and zinc precipitates is covered, as well as techniques used to solubilize Fe(3+) with organic chelates. Factors that affect Fe(2+) oxidation are mentioned, and the use of ascorbate as a reducing agent is considered. Measurement of the rate of Fe(2+) oxidation (or Fe(3+) reduction) with the Fe(2+) chromophores ferrozine and BPS is also discussed. Generation of a free metal ion activity through use of metal buffers (chelators) is discussed. Theoretical problems associated with this technique are explored, and selected shareware metal ion buffer calculators are described. Finally, techniques for measuring and minimizing nonspecific binding of iron and zinc ions to biological membranes are considered.
Article: Lactic acid decreases Fe(II) and Fe(III) retention but increases Fe(III) transepithelial transfer by Caco-2 cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lactic acid (LA) has been proposed to be an enhancer for dietary iron absorption, but contradictory results have also been reported. In the present study, fully differentiated Caco-2 cell monolayers were used to evaluate the effects of LA (1-50 mmol/L) on the cellular retention and transepithelial transport of soluble non-heme iron (as ferric nitrilotriacetate). Our data revealed a linear decline in Fe(III) retention with respect to the concentration of LA added. In the presence of 50 mmol/L LA, retention of Fe(III) and Fe(II) decreased 57% and 58%, respectively. In contrast, transfer of Fe(III) across the cell monolayer was doubled, while Fe(II) transfer across the cell monolayer decreased 35%. We conclude that LA reduces cellular retention and transepithelial transport of Fe(II) by Caco-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. However, while LA also reduces retention of Fe(III) by Caco-2 cells, the transfer of Fe(III) across cell monolayers is enhanced, possibly due to effects on paracellular transport.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 09/2005; 53(17):6919-23. · 2.82 Impact Factor