Uptake of injected PCBs from the yolk by the developing chicken embryo.
ABSTRACT In this study, PCB uptake by the developing chicken embryo was measured after injection of two different doses of Aroclor 1254 before incubation. It was shown that 2% of the injected PCBs was absorbed on day 13, and this increased exponentially to 18% at day 19. This exponential increase could be described by a similar model for both low and high injection doses. Differences in injection dose resulted in corresponding differences in concentration in the embryos. Lipid corrected concentrations in the embryo were stable through development from day 13 up to day 19 and could be predicted from injection doses by using a conversion factor of 0.15 g(-1).
- SourceAvailable from: Steven J Bursian[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The yolks of White Leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus) eggs were injected prior to incubation with either 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) at doses ranging from 0.1 to 12.8 microg/kg egg or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) at doses ranging from 0.04 to 0.64 microg/kg egg. Chicks were subjected to necropsy within 24 h of hatching. The brain, bursa, heart, liver, and spleen were removed and weighed. Assessment of the rate of hatching indicated an LD50+/-S.E. of 2.3+/-0.19 microg/kg egg (7. 1+/-0.58 nmol/kg egg) for PCB 126 and 0.15 +/- 0.012 microg/kg egg (0.47 +/- 0.037 nmol/kg egg) for TCDD. No significant differences in the incidence of developmental abnormalities (structural defects and edema) were observed in TCDD-exposed embryos, while PCB 126 caused significantly more developmental abnormalities at 3.2, 6.4, and 12.8 microg/kg egg than the vehicle control. PCB 126 caused lower hatchling weights and greater relative brain, heart, and liver weights when compared to the vehicle control group at a dose of 3.2 microg/kg egg which is greater than the LD50. TCDD at 0.08 microg/kg egg caused relative bursa weights to be less than those of the vehicle control. A toxic equivalency factor (TEF) of 0.07 was determined for PCB 126 in relation to TCDD based on overt lethality.Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 11/1996; 31(3):404-9. · 2.01 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The distributions of PCB 105, 156, 189, and endosulfan in incubating, maternally exposed, viable white leghorn chicken eggs (Gallus domesticus) were investigated. Hens were subcutaneously injected every 4 days with a mixture of the above chemicals. One group of five eggs was removed from the incubator at each of 9, 14, and 19 days of incubation; dissected into three compartments (embryo, chorioallantoic membrane, and yolk + albumin); weighed; frozen; and then later analyzed for the dosing chemicals. Through 19 days of development (90% of incubation), greater than 70% of the total chemical mass in the whole egg remained within the yolk + albumin, whereas, depending on the chemical, 17% to 30% was absorbed by the embryo and 0.2% to 9% was transported into the chorioallantoic membrane. As a percentage of total PCB mass within the respective compartment, PCB 105 composition in the embryo and chorioallantoic membrane decreased significantly throughout development while PCB 156 and 189 composition increased significantly throughout development. Though endosulfan composition within any of the compartments was highly variable, it did not change significantly during development. The results of this study indicate that the majority of avian chick exposure to contaminants occurs posthatch as the chick continues to utilize the residual yolk.Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 12/2001; 41(4):508-14. · 2.01 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Several species of colonial fish-eating birds nesting in the Great Lakes basin, including herring gulls, common terns and double-crested cormorants, have exhibited chronic impairment of reproduction. In addition to eggshell thinning caused by high levels of DDT and metabolites, the reproductive impairment is characterized by high embryonic and chick mortality, edema, growth retardation, and deformities, hence the name Great Lakes embryo mortality, edema, and deformities syndrome (GLEMEDS). The hypothesis has been advanced that GLEMEDS in colonial fish-eating birds resembles chick-edema disease of poultry and has been caused by exposure to chick-edema active compounds that have a common mode of action through the cytochrome P-448 system. Detailed evidence has been collected from the following three groups of studies on herring gulls in the lower Great Lakes during the early 1970s; Forster's terns in Green Bay, Wisconsin in 1983; and double-crested cormorants and Caspian terns in various locations in the upper Great Lakes from 1986 onwards. It has proved difficult to establish not only the onset of the disease in the various species at various locations but also the period in which chick-edema active compounds were released. Anecdotal evidence suggested that serious egg mortality in Lake Ontario herring gulls first occurred in 1966, through the signs of chick-edema disease were not looked for until 1974. Only indirect evidence is available on the date of the release of one of the presumed causal agents, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, but highest levels may have occurred in the early to mid 1960s. More reliable data show that the onset of the improvement of reproduction of Lake Ontario herring gulls coincided with the declines in organochlorine compounds and particularly 2,3,7,8-TCDD and PCB. Similarly, information on the onset of the disease and exposures in the Forster's tern and double-crested cormorants in Green Bay is uncertain but bird banders did not observe deformities until the 1970s, which corresponds with the onset of high levels of PCB. If the disappearance of the Caspian tern from Saginaw Bay in the mid 1960s corresponds with the onset of GLEMEDS at that location, then there is a close temporal relationship to the onset of high PCB levels. Chick-edema disease is difficult to diagnose because there is no specific lesion, but rather there is a suite of lesions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 09/1991; 33(4):455-520. · 1.81 Impact Factor