A randomized phase II trial of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor therapy in severe sepsis with respiratory dysfunction.
ABSTRACT Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) stimulates hemopoiesis and effector functions of granulocytes and macrophages and is involved in pulmonary surfactant homeostasis. We investigated whether GM-CSF therapy improved clinically diagnosed severe sepsis and respiratory dysfunction in critically ill patients. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II study added low-dose (3 mcg/kg) intravenous recombinant human GM-CSF daily for 5 days to conventional therapy in 10 patients, with a further eight patients receiving placebo. GM-CSF-treated patients showed improvement in Pa(O(2))/FI(O(2)) over 5 days (p = 0.02) and increased peripheral blood neutrophils (p = 0.08), whereas alveolar neutrophils decreased (p = 0.02). GM-CSF therapy was not associated with decreased 30-day survival or with increased acute respiratory distress syndrome or extrapulmonary organ dysfunction. GM-CSF therapy was associated with increased blood granulocyte superoxide production and restoration or preservation of blood and alveolar leukocyte phagocytic function. We conclude that low-dose GM-CSF was associated with improved gas exchange without pulmonary neutrophil infiltration, despite functional activation of both circulating neutrophils and pulmonary phagocytes. In addition, GM-CSF therapy was not associated with worsened acute respiratory distress syndrome or the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, suggesting a homeostatic role for GM-CSF in sepsis-related pulmonary dysfunction.
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ABSTRACT: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) constitutes a spectrum of severe acute respiratory failure in response to a variety of inciting stimuli that is the leading cause of death and disability in the critically ill. Despite decades of research, there are no therapies for ARDS, and management remains supportive. A growing understanding of the complexity of the pathophysiology of ARDS, coupled with advances in stem cell biology, has lead to a renewed interest in the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells for ARDS. Recent evidence suggests that mesenchymal stem cells can modulate the immune response to reduce injury and also increase resistance to infection, while also facilitating regeneration and repair of the injured lung. This unique combination of effects has generated considerable excitement. We review the biological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells that underlie their therapeutic potential for ARDS. We also summarise existing pre-clinical evidence, evaluate the potential and pitfalls of using mesenchymal stem cells for treatment, and examine the likely future directions for mesenchymal stem cells in ARDS.F1000 Medicine Reports 01/2012; 4:2.
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ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are required for protective host defense against bacterial pathogens. However, the role of TLRs in regulating lung injury during Gram-negative bacterial pneumonia has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, experiments were performed to evaluate the role of TLR4 in pulmonary responses against Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp). Compared with wild-type (WT) (Balb/c) mice, mice with defective TLR4 signaling (TLR4(lps-d) mice) had substantially higher lung bacterial colony-forming units after intratracheal challenge with Kp, which was associated with considerably greater lung permeability and lung cell death. Reduced expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) mRNA and protein was noted in lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of TLR4 mutant mice postintratracheal Kp compared with WT mice, and primary alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) harvested from TLR4(lps-d) mice produced significantly less GM-CSF in vitro in response to heat-killed Kp compared with WT AEC. TLR4(lps-d) AEC underwent significantly more apoptosis in response to heat-killed Kp in vitro, and treatment with GM-CSF protected these cells from apoptosis in response to Kp. Finally, intratracheal administration of GM-CSF in TLR4(lps-d) mice significantly decreased albumin leak, lung cell apoptosis, and bacteremia in Kp-infected mice. Based on these observations, we conclude that TLR4 plays a protective role on lung epithelium during Gram-negative bacterial pneumonia, an effect that is partially mediated by GM-CSF.AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 12/2011; 302(5):L447-54. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The growth factor GM-CSF has an important role in pulmonary surfactant metabolism and the regulation of antibacterial activities of lung sentinel cells. However, the potential of intra-alveolar GM-CSF to augment lung protective immunity against inhaled bacterial pathogens has not been defined in preclinical infection models. We hypothesized that transient overexpression of GM-CSF in the lungs of mice by adenoviral gene transfer (Ad-GM-CSF) would protect mice from subsequent lethal pneumococcal pneumonia. Our data show that intra-alveolar delivery of Ad-GM-CSF led to sustained increased pSTAT5 expression and PU.1 protein expression in alveolar macrophages during a 28-d observation period. Pulmonary Ad-GM-CSF delivery 2-4 wk prior to infection of mice with Streptococcus pneumoniae significantly reduced mortality rates relative to control vector-treated mice. This increased survival was accompanied by increased inducible NO synthase expression, antibacterial activity, and a significant reduction in caspase-3-dependent apoptosis and secondary necrosis of lung sentinel cells. Importantly, therapeutic treatment of mice with rGM-CSF improved lung protective immunity and accelerated bacterial clearance after pneumococcal challenge. We conclude that prophylactic delivery of GM-CSF triggers long-lasting immunostimulatory effects in the lung in vivo and rescues mice from lethal pneumococcal pneumonia by improving antibacterial immunity. These data support use of novel antibiotic-independent immunostimulatory therapies to protect patients against bacterial pneumonias.The Journal of Immunology 11/2011; 187(10):5346-56. · 5.52 Impact Factor