Analysis of heparan sulfate oligosaccharides with ion pair-reverse phase capillary high performance liquid chromatography-microelectrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
ABSTRACT Heparan sulfate, a cell surface bound glycosaminoglycan polysaccharide, has been implicated in numerous biological functions. Heparan sulfate molecules are highly complex and diverse, yet deceivingly look simple and similar, rendering structure--function correlation tedious. Current chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques have limitations for analyzing glycosaminoglycan samples that are in low abundance and that are large in size, due to their highly acidic nature arising from a large number of sulfate and of carboxylate groups. A new methodology was developed using capillary ion-paired reverse-phase C18 HPLC directly coupled to ESI-TOF-MS to address the above issues. On the basis of HS disaccharide analysis, dibutylamine was found to be the best suited for HS analysis among many ion-pairing agents investigated. Next, analysis of oligosaccharides derived from heparosan, the precursor for heparan sulfate, was undertaken to demonstrate its greater applicability in a more complex structural analysis. The established chromatographic conditions enabled the characterization of heparosan oligosaccharides of sizes up to tetracontasaccharide with high resolution in a single run and were amenable to negative ion electrospray MS in which sodium adduction and fragmentation were avoided. To date, these are the largest nonsulfated HS precursor oligosaccharides to be characterized by LC/MS. Finally, the current methodology was applied to the characterization of the biologically important ATIII binding pentasaccharide and its precursors, which differ from each other by sulfation pattern and/or degree of sulfation. All of these pentasaccharides were well-resolved and characterized by the LC/MS system with (34)SO(4) as a mass spectral probe. This newly developed methodology facilitates the purification and rapid characterization of biologically significant HS oligosaccharides, and will thus expedite their synthesis. These findings should undoubtedly pave the way in deciphering multiple functional arrangements, ascribed to many biological activities, which are predictably embedded in a single large chaotic, yet well-organized HS polysaccharide chain. Development of newer techniques for HS oligosaccharide analysis is greatly needed in the postgenome era as attention shifts to the functional implications of proteins and carbohydrates in general and HS in particular.
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ABSTRACT: Glycosylation modifies the physicochemical properties and protein binding functions of glycoconjugates. These modifications are biosynthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus by a series of enzymatic transformations that are under complex control. As a result, mature glycans on a given site are heterogeneous mixtures of glycoforms. This gives rise to a spectrum of adhesive properties that strongly influences interactions with binding partners and resultant biological effects. In order to understand the roles glycosylation plays in normal and disease processes, efficient structural analysis tools are necessary. In the field of glycomics, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) is used to profile the glycans present in a given sample. This technology enables comparison of glycan compositions and abundances among different biological samples, i.e. normal versus disease, normal versus mutant, etc. Manual analysis of the glycan profiling LC/MS data is extremely time-consuming and efficient software tools are needed to eliminate this bottleneck. In this work, we have developed a tool to computationally model LC/MS data to enable efficient profiling of glycans. Using LC/MS data deconvoluted by Decon2LS/DeconTools, we built a list of unique neutral masses corresponding to candidate glycan compositions summarized over their various charge states, adducts and range of elution times. Our work aims to provide confident identification of true compounds in complex data sets that are not amenable to manual interpretation. This capability is an essential part of glycomics work flows. We demonstrate this tool, GlycReSoft, using an LC/MS dataset on tissue derived heparan sulfate oligosaccharides. The software, code and a test data set are publically archived under an open source license.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(9):e45474. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) are produced from heparin by various depolymerization strategies, which result in a reduction of the average molecular weight of the polysaccharide chains, a reduction of the anti-factor IIa activity (and a concomitant increase in the anti-factor Xa/anti-factor IIa ratio), and introduction of process-related structural signatures. Numerous techniques have been developed to characterize LMWHs and to measure the type and extent of structural modifications that are introduced as a function of the depolymerization process. We present here an analysis of the tetrasaccharide pool of enoxaparin sodium, a LMWH produced by chemical β-elimination of heparin benzyl ester. We identify the predominant sequences present within the tetrasaccharide pool and demonstrate that this pool provides a sensitive, specific readout of the physicochemical process conditions used to generate enoxaparin sodium.Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 05/2012; 403(9):2733-44. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We report the complete separation and characterization by online high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) of fully saturated alginic acid (AA) oligosaccharides from DP1 to beyond DP23, obtained by a chemical process, and unsaturated oligomers from DP1 to DP10, produced by lyase treatment. A series of negatively charged species of different m/z ratio are seen for each oligosaccharide. Smaller AA species, from DP1 to DP4, mainly furnish [M–H]− anions whereas the DP5 to DP9-10 oligomers predominantly exist as the 2- charge state. The AA oligomers from DP10 to DP17 are mainly represented by the [M–3H]3− anions whereas species from DP18 to DP23 are characterized by the 4− charge state. Online LC-ESI-MS enabled separation and simultaneous characterization of complex saturated and unsaturated AA oligomer mixtures without previous sample treatment, in particular extensive removal of salts to obtain species compatible with ESI-MS.Chromatographia 04/2012; 69(9):813-819. · 1.44 Impact Factor