The presenilin 1 deltaE9 mutation gives enhanced basal phospholipase C activity and a resultant increase in intracellular calcium concentrations.
ABSTRACT We studied effects of the familial Alzheimer's disease presenilin 1 (PS1) exon 9 deletion (PS1-DeltaE9) mutation on basal and carbachol-stimulated phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis and intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. We demonstrate that PS1-DeltaE9 cells have an enhanced basal PI hydrolysis and [Ca(2+)](i) as compared with both wild type PS1 (PS1-WT) and nontransfected (NT) cells. Both were reversed by the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor neomycin. The PS1-DeltaE9-related high basal [Ca(2+)](i) was also reversed by xestospongin C confirming that this effect was inositol trisphosphate receptor-mediated. Carbachol gave a greater stimulation of [Ca(2+)](i) in PS1-DeltaE9 cells that took longer to return to basal as compared with responses seen in NT and PS1-WT cells. This long tail-off effect seen in PS1-DeltaE9 cells after carbachol stimulation was reversed by xestospongin C and dantrolene, suggesting that it was mediated by inositol trisphosphate receptor and ryanodine receptor amplification of Ca(2+). Ruthenium red only reduced carbachol peak elevations of [Ca(2+)](i) in NT and PS1-WT cells and not in PS1-DeltaE9 cells. No significant between cell type differences were seen for basal and carbachol-stimulated [Ca(2+)](i) with either ryanodine or the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid. Immunostaining experiments revealed that for all the cell types PS1 is present at the plasma membrane and co-localizes with N-cadherin, a component of the cell-cell adhesion complex. Immunoblotting of cell extracts for PLC-beta1 showed that, compared with NT and PS1-WT cells, the PS1-DeltaE9 transfectants gave a relative increase in levels of the calpain generated N-terminal fragment (100 kDa) over full-length (150 kDa) PLC-beta1. Our results suggest that the PS1-DeltaE9 mutation causes upstream changes in PI signaling with enhanced basal PLC activity as a primary effect that leads to a higher [Ca(2+)](i). This may provide a novel mechanism by which the PS1-DeltaE9 mutation sensitizes cells to apoptotic stimuli and enhanced amyloid beta generation.
Nature reviews. Neuroscience 12/2002; 3(11):862-72. · 30.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Both acute and chronic degenerative diseases of the nervous system reduce the viability and function of neurons through changes in intracellular calcium signaling. In particular, pathological increases in the intracellular calcium concentration promote such pathogenesis. Disease involvement of numerous regulators of intracellular calcium signaling located on the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles has been documented. Diverse groups of chemical compounds targeting ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors, pumps and enzymes have been identified as potential neuroprotectants. The present review summarizes the discovery, mechanisms and biological activity of neuroprotective molecules targeting proteins that control intracellular calcium signaling to preserve or restore structure and function of the nervous system. Disease relevance, clinical applications and new technologies for the identification of such molecules are being discussed.Molecules 01/2010; 15(3):1168-95. · 2.39 Impact Factor