Heterogeneity of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptors in rat intrinsic cardiac neurons.
ABSTRACT The expression of receptors for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) was investigated in isolated parasympathetic neurons of neonatal rat intracardiac ganglia using single-cell reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Individual neurons were shown to express multiple isoforms of the PACAP receptor, PAC1, including PAC1-short, -HOP1 and -HOP2 variants, which differ in the region encoding the G protein-binding domain. The PAC1-HOP1 isoform was the predominant species, being expressed at higher levels and in a greater number of cells than other PAC1 variants. In addition to PAC1, intrinsic cardiac neurons express transcripts for the VIP receptors, VPAC1 and VPAC2, with VPAC2 being found in a greater proportion of the neurons. These findings may explain the complex effects of PACAP and VIP on neuroexcitability in mammalian intracardiac ganglia.
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ABSTRACT: PACAP and VIP have prominent effects on cardiac function in several species, but little is known about their influence on the murine heart. Accordingly, we evaluated the expression of PACAP/VIP receptors in mouse heart and the response of isolated atria to peptide agonists. Quantitative PCR demonstrated that PAC1, VPAC1, and VPAC2 receptor mRNAs are present throughout the mouse heart. Expression of all three receptor transcripts was low, PAC1 being the lowest. No regional differences in expression were detected for individual receptor mRNAs after normalization to L32. Pharmacological effects of PACAP-27, VIP, and the selective PAC1 agonist maxadilan were evaluated in isolated, spontaneously beating atria from C57BL/6 mice of either sex. Incremental additions of PACAP-27 at 1min intervals caused a concentration-dependent tachycardia with a log EC50=-9.08±0.15M (n=7) and a maximum of 96.3±5.9% above baseline heart rate. VIP and maxadilan also caused tachycardia but their potencies were about two orders of magnitude less. Increasing the dosing interval to 5min caused a leftward shift of the concentration-response curve to maxadilan but no changes in the curves for PACAP-27 or VIP. Under this condition, neither the potency nor the efficacy of maxadilan differed from those of PACAP-27. Neither PACAP-27 nor maxadilan caused tachyphylaxis, and maximal responses to maxadilan were maintained for at least 2h. We conclude that all three VIP/PACAP family receptors are expressed by mouse cardiac tissue, but only PAC1 receptors mediate positive chronotropic responses to PACAP-27 and VIP.European journal of pharmacology 05/2013; · 2.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It was, until recently, accepted that the two classes of acetylcholine (ACh) receptors are distinct in an important sense: muscarinic ACh receptors signal via heterotrimeric GTP binding proteins (G proteins), whereas nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) open to allow flux of Na(+), Ca(2+), and K(+) ions into the cell after activation. Here we present evidence of direct coupling between G proteins and nAChRs in neurons. Based on proteomic, biophysical, and functional evidence, we hypothesize that binding to G proteins modulates the activity and signaling of nAChRs in cells. It is important to note that while this hypothesis is new for the nAChR, it is consistent with known interactions between G proteins and structurally related ligand-gated ion channels. Therefore, it underscores an evolutionarily conserved metabotropic mechanism of G protein signaling via nAChR channels. Also watch the Video Abstract.BioEssays 10/2013; · 5.42 Impact Factor