Inhibition of matrix-proteases by polyphenols: chemical insights for anti-inflammatory and anti-invasion drug design.
ABSTRACT Flavanols--a class of plant polyphenols abundant in tea leaves and grape seeds and skins--have been found to inhibit some matrix-proteases instrumental in inflammation and cancer invasion, such as leukocyte elastase (LE) and gelatinases. In order to establish the relationship between chemical structure and activity, 27 different flavonoids (antocyanidins, dihydrochalcones, dihydroflavonols, flavanolignans, flavanols, flavones, flavonols and isoflavones) and other compounds with anti-oxidant properties were evaluated for their potential in blocking LE and gelatinase activities. LE activity was measured using a chromogenic substrate: from comparison of the different levels of inhibition, it was deduced that a crucial role in inhibition might be played by a galloyl moiety or hydroxyl group at C3, three hydroxyl groups at B ring, one hydroxyl group at C4', and a 2,3-double bond. Gelatinase activity was measured using the gelatin-zymography assay, and its inhibition showed that three hydroxyl groups at the A or B ring, or, for non-planar molecules, a galloyl moiety at C3 could be determinant. This comparative study is proposed as a basis for designing new molecules with enhanced anti-proteolytic activities, and no or reduced side-effects, for use in hindering inflammation, cancer invasion and angiogenesis.
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ABSTRACT: Many of the inflammatory diseases are becoming common in aging society throughout the world. The clinically used anti-inflammatory drugs suffer from the disadvantage of side effects and high cost of treatment (in case of biologics). Alternative to these drugs are traditional medicines and natural products, which offer a great hope in the identification of bioactive lead compounds and their development into drugs for treating inflammatory diseases. Since ancient times traditional medicines and phytopharmaceuticals are being used for the treatment of inflammatory and other disorders. The present review article describes anti-inflammatory natural products derived from plants and marine sources reported during last decade. The compounds described belong to different chemical classes such as alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, polyphenolics, phenylpropanoids, fatty acids and lipids, and various miscellaneous compounds. The attempt is also being made to enumerate the possible leads, e.g. curcumin, resveratrol, baicalein, boswellic acid, betulinic acid, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid, for further development with the help of structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies and their current status. In addition SAR studies carried out on the anti-inflammatory activity of flavonoid compounds and clinical studies performed on anti-inflammatory natural products are also discussed.Medicinal Research Reviews 05/2009; 29(5):767-820. · 10.70 Impact Factor
Article: Suppression of nitric oxide production in mouse macrophages by soybean flavonoids accumulated in response to nitroprusside and fungal elicitation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The anti-inflammatory properties of some flavonoids have been attributed to their ability to inhibit the production of NO by activated macrophages. Soybean cotyledons accumulate certain flavonoids following elicitation with an extract of the fungal pathogen Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis (Dpm). Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide donor, can substitute for Dpm in inducing flavonoid production. In this study, we investigated the effect of flavonoid-containing diffusates obtained from Dpm- and SNP-elicited soybean cotyledons on NO production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and LPS plus interferon-gamma (IFNgamma)-activated murine macrophages. Significant inhibition of NO production, measured as nitrite formation, was observed when macrophages were activated in the presence of soybean diffusates from Dpm- or SNP-elicited cotyledons. This inhibition was dependent on the duration of exposure to the elicitor. Daidzein, genistein, luteolin and apigenin, the main flavonoids present in diffusates of elicited cotyledons, suppressed the NO production by LPS + IFNgamma activated macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 81.4 microM, 34.5 microM, 38.6 microM and 10.4 microM respectively. For macrophages activated with LPS alone, the IC50 values were 40.0 microM, 16.6 microM, 10.4 microM and 2.8 microM, respectively. Western blot analysis showed that iNOS expression was not affected by daidzein, was reduced by genistein, and was abolished by apigenin, luteolin and Dpm- and SNP-soybean diffusates at concentrations that significantly inhibited NO production by activated macrophages. These results suggest that the suppressive effect of flavonoids on iNOS expression could account for the potent inhibitory effect of Dpm- and SNP-diffusates on NO production by activated macrophages. Since the physiological concentration of flavonoids in plants is normally low, the treatment of soybean tissues with SNP may provide a simple method for substantially increasing the concentration of metabolites that are beneficial for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases associated with NO production.BMC Biochemistry 05/2004; 5:5. · 1.99 Impact Factor