Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play a critical role in embryo development, organogenesis, and regeneration of damaged tissues. Biological activity of BMPs depends on their local concentration, which is regulated by intracellular enzymatic processing of pro-BMPs, and then the binding of secreted BMPs to antagonizing extracellular proteins. It has been suggested that BMPs interact with structural proteins of the extracellular matrix, but this process is poorly understood. To study interactions of BMPs with fibrillar collagens in detail we expressed recombinant procollagen II variants in which specific domains that correspond to the D-periods were deleted. Subsequently, the procollagen II variants were used in biosensor and immuno-precipitation binding assays to map the regions of procollagen II with a high affinity for the BMP-2. Our data suggest that interaction of BMP-2 with procollagen II is site-specific, and that the high-affinity binding site is located in the D4-period of the collagen triple helix. We hypothesize that the binding of BMP-2 to collagen II reflects a general mechanism of interaction between the fibrillar collagens and morphogens that belong to the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta superfamily.
"Although the blend fibers formed a gel-like structure over time, which was observed earlier in unfixed collagen blended nanofibers , this effect had no impact on the release kinetics of the incorporated BMP-2. This might be explained by the collagen binding sequence, presented in BMP-2 [55, 56], retarding the growth factor without detectable effect on the BMP-bioavailability. Maybe this form of BMP-2 presentation is similar to the extra cellular matrix, facilitating the BMP-2 contact to its receptors. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cell differentiation of osteoblasts is triggered by a series of signaling processes including integrin and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), which therefore act in a cooperative manner. The aim of this study was to analyze whether these processes can be remodeled in an artificial poly-(L)-lactide acid (PLLA) based nanofiber scaffold. Matrices composed of PLLA-collagen type I or BMP-2 incorporated PLLA-collagen type I were seeded with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) and cultivated over a period of 22 days, either under growth or osteoinductive conditions. During the course of culture, gene expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC) and collagen I (COL-I) as well as Smad5 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), two signal transduction molecules involved in BMP-2 or integrin signaling were analyzed. Furthermore, calcium and collagen I deposition, as well as cell densities and proliferation, were determined using fluorescence microscopy. The incorporation of BMP-2 into PLLA-collagen type I nanofibers resulted in a decrease in diameter as well as pore sizes of the scaffold. Mesenchymal stem cells showed better adherence and a reduced proliferation on BMP-containing scaffolds. This was accompanied by an increase in gene expression of ALP, OC and COL-I. Furthermore the presence of BMP-2 resulted in an upregulation of FAK, while collagen had an impact on the gene expression of Smad5. Therefore these different strategies can be combined in order to enhance the osteoblast differentiation of hMSC on PLLA based nanofiber scaffold. By doing this, different signal transduction pathways seem to be up regulated.
Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine 05/2011; 22(7):1753-62. DOI:10.1007/s10856-011-4341-4 · 2.59 Impact Factor
"However , this might be different in vivo . Therapeutically, rhBMP-2 is recommended for non-implant use, such as fracture stabilization and spine fusion, being applied in large amounts of 12 mg (rhBMP-2 CHO , InductOs, Wyeth), together with the surfactant Tween 80 and a carrier such as bovine collagen   . Release rates of rhBMP-2, locally administered in rats, have been reported with half-lives between 2 and 4 days . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) was immobilized non-covalently and covalently as a monolayer on plasma vapour deposited (PVD) porous commercially pure titanium surfaces in amounts of 5-8 μg cm(-2), providing a ca. 10-fold increase vs. previously reported values. Dissociation of the immobilized [125I]rhBMP-2 from the surface occurred in a two-phase exponential decay: a first rapid phase (ca. 15% of immobilized BMP-2) with a half-life of 1-2 days and a second slow sustained release phase (ca. 85% of immobilized BMP-2) with a half-life of 40-60 days. Dissociation rate constants of sustained release of k(-1)=1.3-1.9 x 10(-7)s(-1) were determined, allowing an estimation of the binding constants (K(A)) for the adsorbed rhBMP-2 monolayer, to be around 10(12) M(-1). The rhBMP-2-coated surfaces showed a high level of biological activity, as demonstrated by in vitro epifluorescence tests for alkaline phosphatase with MC3T3-E1 cells and in vivo experiments. In vivo osteoinductivity of rhBMP-2-coated implants was investigated in a gap-healing model in the trabecular bone of the distal femur condylus of sheep. Healing occurred without inflammation or capsule formation. The calculated concentration of released rhBMP-2 in the 1mm gap ranged from 20 to 98 nM--well above the half-maximal response concentration (K(0.5)) for inducing alkaline phosphatase in MC3T3-E1 cells. After 4, 9 and 12 weeks the bone density (BD) and bone-to-implant contact (BIC) of the explanted implants were assessed histomorphometrically. Implants with immobilized rhBMP-2 displayed a significant (2- to 4-fold) increase in BD and BIC values vs. negative controls after 4-9 weeks. Integration of implants by trabecular bone was achieved after 4 weeks, indicating a mean "gap-filling rate" of ∼250 μm week(-1). Integration of implants by cortical bone was observed after 9 weeks. Control implants without rhBMP-2 were not osseointegrated. This study demonstrates the feasibility of enhancing peri-implant osseointegration and gap bridging by immobilized rhBMP-2 on implant surfaces which may serve as a model for future clinical applications.
"In natural bone regeneration, the prolonged presence of the BMP in the local environment is provided by BMP binding to the extracellular matrix (Ruppert et al. 1996; Sieron et al. 2002). In therapeutic situations, prolonged BMP presence has been correlated with an enhancement of bone growth (Woo et al. 2001). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was (1) to test whether or not platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or commercially available fibrin can increase bone regeneration compared with non-treated defects and (2) to test whether or not PRP or fibrin increases bone regeneration when used as a delivery system for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). In 16 New Zealand White rabbits, four evenly distributed 6 mm diameter defects were drilled into the calvarial bone. The following five treatment modalities were randomly allocated to all 64 defects: (0) untreated control, (1) fibrin alone, (2) PRP alone, (3) fibrin with 15 microg rhBMP-2 and (4) PRP with 15 microg rhBMP-2. For the fibrin gels and the PRP containing rhBMP-2, the 15 microg rhBMP-2 was incorporated by precipitation within the matrices before their gelation. After 4 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and the calvarial bones were removed for histological preparation. The area fraction of newly formed bone was determined in vertical sections from the middle of the defect by applying histomorphometrical analysis. A mean area fraction of newly formed bone was found within the former defect of 23.4% (+/-13.5%) in the control sites, of 28.4% (+/-17.4%) in the fibrin sites and of 34.5% (+/-17.4%) in the PRP sites. The statistical analysis revealed no significant difference in bone formation between the three groups (ANOVA). Addition of 15 microg rhBMP-2 in the fibrin gel (59.9+/-20.3%) and the PRP gels (63.1+/-25.3%) increased bone formation significantly. No significant difference was observed between sites, where PRP or fibrin has been used as a delivery system for rhBMP-2 (ANOVA). In conclusion, the application of fibrin gels or PRP gels to bone defects is not superior to leaving the defect untreated. Regarding the amount of bone formation, the application of 15 microg rhBMP-2 in bone defects enhances the healing significantly at 4 weeks. In this animal model, commercially available fibrin and autologous PRP gels are equally effective as delivery systems for rhBMP-2.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.