Site-specific interaction of bone morphogenetic protein 2 with procollagen II.
ABSTRACT Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play a critical role in embryo development, organogenesis, and regeneration of damaged tissues. Biological activity of BMPs depends on their local concentration, which is regulated by intracellular enzymatic processing of pro-BMPs, and then the binding of secreted BMPs to antagonizing extracellular proteins. It has been suggested that BMPs interact with structural proteins of the extracellular matrix, but this process is poorly understood. To study interactions of BMPs with fibrillar collagens in detail we expressed recombinant procollagen II variants in which specific domains that correspond to the D-periods were deleted. Subsequently, the procollagen II variants were used in biosensor and immuno-precipitation binding assays to map the regions of procollagen II with a high affinity for the BMP-2. Our data suggest that interaction of BMP-2 with procollagen II is site-specific, and that the high-affinity binding site is located in the D4-period of the collagen triple helix. We hypothesize that the binding of BMP-2 to collagen II reflects a general mechanism of interaction between the fibrillar collagens and morphogens that belong to the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta superfamily.
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ABSTRACT: Cell interactions with the extracellular matrix play important roles in guiding tissue morphogenesis. The matrix stimulates cells to influence such things as differentiation and the cells actively remodel the matrix via local proteolytic activity. We have designed synthetic hydrogel networks that participate in this interplay: They signal cells via bound adhesion and growth factors, and they also respond to the remodeling influence of cell-associated proteases. Poly(ethylene glycol)-bis-vinylsulfone was crosslinked by a Michael-type addition reaction with a peptide containing three cysteine residues, the peptide sequence being cleavable between each cysteine residue by the cell-associated protease plasmin. Cells were able to invade gel networks that contained adhesion peptides and were crosslinked by plasmin-sensitive peptides, while materials lacking either of these two characteristics resisted cell infiltration. Incorporated bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) induced bone healing in a rat model in materials that were both adhesive and plasmin-sensitive, while materials lacking plasmin sensitivity resisted formation of bone within the material. Furthermore, when a heparin bridge was incorporated as a BMP-2 affinity site, mimicking yet another characteristic of the extracellular matrix, statistically improved bone regeneration was observed.Biotechnology and Bioengineering 05/2004; 86(1):27-36. DOI:10.1002/bit.10897 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adenosine kinase deficient (Adk-/-) embryonic stem cells (ESCs) encapsulated in synthetic polymers have previously been shown to provide therapeutic adenosine release and transient seizure suppression in epileptic rats. Here we explored the utility of biopolymer-substrates to promote long-term adenosine release from Adk-/- ESCs. Three different substrates were studied: (1) type I collagen (Col-1), (2) silk-fibroin (SF), and (3) poly(L-ornithine) (PO) coated tissue culture plastic. Adk-/- or wild type (wt) ESC-derived glial precursor cells were seeded on the substrates and cultured either in proliferation medium containing growth factors or in differentiation medium devoid of growth factors. In proliferation medium cell proliferation was higher and metabolic activity lower on Col-1 and PO substrates as compared to SF. Cells from both genotypes readily differentiated into astrocytes after growth factor removal on all substrates. Adk-/- cells cultured on biopolymers released significantly more adenosine than their wt counterparts at all developmental stages. Adenosine release was similar on SF and PO substrates and the amounts released from Adk-/- cells (>20 ng/ml) were considered to be of therapeutic relevance. Taken together, these results suggest that silk matrices are particularly suitable biomaterials for ESC encapsulation and for the design of adenosine releasing bioincubators for the treatment of epilepsy.Biomaterials 10/2006; 27(26):4599-607. DOI:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2006.04.025 · 8.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nerve conduits (NC) for peripheral nerve repair should guide the sprouting axons and physically protect the axonal cone from any damage. The NC should also degrade after completion of its function to obviate the need of subsequent explanation and should optionally be suitable for controlled drug release of embedded growth factors to enhance nerve regeneration. Silk fibroin (SF) is a biocompatible and slowly biodegradable biomaterial with excellent mechanical properties that could meet the above stated requirements. SF material (films) supported the adherence and metabolic activity of PC12 cells, and, in combination with nerve growth factor (NGF), supported neurite outgrowth during PC12 cell differentiation. NGF-loaded SF-NC were prepared from aqueous solutions of NGF and SF (20%, w/w), which were air-dried or freeze-dried (freezing at -20 or -196 degrees C) in suitable molds. NGF release from the three differently prepared SF-NC was prolonged over at least 3 weeks, but the total amount released depended on the drying procedure of the NC. The potency of released NGF was retained within all formulations. Control experiments with differently dried NGF-lactose solutions did not evidence marked protein aggregation (SEC, HPLC), loss of ELISA-reactivity or PC12 cell bioactivity. This study encourages the further exploitation of SF-NC for growth factor delivery and evaluation in peripheral nerve repair.Biomaterials 11/2007; 28(30):4449-60. DOI:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2007.06.034 · 8.31 Impact Factor