Site-specific interaction of bone morphogenetic protein 2 with procollagen II.
ABSTRACT Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play a critical role in embryo development, organogenesis, and regeneration of damaged tissues. Biological activity of BMPs depends on their local concentration, which is regulated by intracellular enzymatic processing of pro-BMPs, and then the binding of secreted BMPs to antagonizing extracellular proteins. It has been suggested that BMPs interact with structural proteins of the extracellular matrix, but this process is poorly understood. To study interactions of BMPs with fibrillar collagens in detail we expressed recombinant procollagen II variants in which specific domains that correspond to the D-periods were deleted. Subsequently, the procollagen II variants were used in biosensor and immuno-precipitation binding assays to map the regions of procollagen II with a high affinity for the BMP-2. Our data suggest that interaction of BMP-2 with procollagen II is site-specific, and that the high-affinity binding site is located in the D4-period of the collagen triple helix. We hypothesize that the binding of BMP-2 to collagen II reflects a general mechanism of interaction between the fibrillar collagens and morphogens that belong to the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta superfamily.
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ABSTRACT: The identification and production of recombinant morphogens and growth factors that play key roles in tissue regeneration have generated much enthusiasm and numerous clinical trials, but the results of many of these trials have been largely disappointing. Interestingly, the trials that have shown benefit all contain a common denominator, the presence of a material carrier, suggesting strongly that spatio-temporal control over the location and bioactivity of factors after introduction into the body is crucial to achieve tangible therapeutic effect. Sophisticated materials systems that regulate the biological presentation of growth factors represent an attractive new generation of therapeutic agents for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. This review provides an overview of growth factor delivery in tissue engineering. Certain fundamental issues and design strategies relevant to the material carriers that are being actively pursued to address specific technical objectives are discussed. Recent progress highlights the importance of materials science and engineering in growth factor delivery approaches to regenerative medicine.Journal of The Royal Society Interface 02/2011; 8(55):153-70. · 4.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Inhibition of the extracellular process of collagen fibril formation represents a new approach to limiting posttraumatic or postsurgical localized fibrosis. It has been demonstrated that employing a monoclonal antibody that targets the C-terminal telopeptide of the α2 chain of collagen I blocks critical collagen I-collagen I interaction, thereby reducing the amount of collagen deposits in vitro and in animal models. Here, we developed a chimeric variant of a prototypic inhibitory antibody of mouse origin. The structure of this novel antibody was analyzed by biochemical and biophysical methods. Moreover, detailed biochemical and biological studies were employed to test its antigen-binding characteristics. The ability of the chimeric variant to block formation of collagen fibrils was tested in vitro and in high-density cultures representing fibrotic processes occurring in the skin, tendon, joint capsule, and gingiva. The potential toxicity of the novel chimeric antibody was analyzed through its impact on the viability and proliferation of various cells and by testing its tissue cross-reactivity in sets of arrays of human and mouse tissues. Results of the presented studies indicate that engineered antibody-based blocker of localized fibrosis is characterized by the following: (1) a correct IgG-like structure, (2) high affinity and high specificity for a defined epitope, (3) a great potential to limit the accumulation of collagen-rich deposits, and (4) a lack of cytotoxicity and nonspecific tissue reactivity. Together, the presented study shows the great potential of the novel chimeric antibody to limit localized fibrosis, thereby setting ground for critical preclinical tests in a relevant animal model.Connective tissue research 04/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cell differentiation of osteoblasts is triggered by a series of signaling processes including integrin and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), which therefore act in a cooperative manner. The aim of this study was to analyze whether these processes can be remodeled in an artificial poly-(L)-lactide acid (PLLA) based nanofiber scaffold. Matrices composed of PLLA-collagen type I or BMP-2 incorporated PLLA-collagen type I were seeded with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) and cultivated over a period of 22 days, either under growth or osteoinductive conditions. During the course of culture, gene expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC) and collagen I (COL-I) as well as Smad5 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), two signal transduction molecules involved in BMP-2 or integrin signaling were analyzed. Furthermore, calcium and collagen I deposition, as well as cell densities and proliferation, were determined using fluorescence microscopy. The incorporation of BMP-2 into PLLA-collagen type I nanofibers resulted in a decrease in diameter as well as pore sizes of the scaffold. Mesenchymal stem cells showed better adherence and a reduced proliferation on BMP-containing scaffolds. This was accompanied by an increase in gene expression of ALP, OC and COL-I. Furthermore the presence of BMP-2 resulted in an upregulation of FAK, while collagen had an impact on the gene expression of Smad5. Therefore these different strategies can be combined in order to enhance the osteoblast differentiation of hMSC on PLLA based nanofiber scaffold. By doing this, different signal transduction pathways seem to be up regulated.Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine 05/2011; 22(7):1753-62. · 2.14 Impact Factor