Intranuclear inclusions, neuronal loss and CAG mosaicism in two patients with Machado-Joseph disease.
ABSTRACT The presence of neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs) and neuronal mosaicism has been described in some autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA), but their implication in neurodegenerative mechanisms still remains unclear.
To investigate the correlation between neuronal loss and NIIs, and the size of CAG triplet expansion in selected areas of the CNS in two SCA3 patients.
Postmortem neuropathological study was carried out, and the regional distribution of neuronal loss was compared with NIIs. CAG expansion was analysed by PCR amplification in the same regions.
Marked neuronal loss was seen in the anterior horn of the spinal cord, pontine nuclei and motor nuclei of the brain stem. Moderate neurone loss was found in the locus ceruleus, colliculus and substantia nigra. Loss of granule and Purkinje cells was found in the cerebellum, mainly in the vermis. NIIs were present in neurones of the involved nuclei of the anterior horn of the spinal cord, medulla oblongata and pons, but not in the locus ceruleus, substantia nigra and cerebellum. A few NIIs were found in the striatum. The number of CAG repeats was 27/70 in the first patient and 21/74 in the second patient. The variation of the expanded allele size among different cerebral areas was +/-1-3 CAG repeats.
The partial correlation between neuronal loss and NIIs suggests that other factors distinct from NII formation may be involved in the neuronal death. Moreover, the low degree of mosaicism between regions without neuronal loss and regions with marked neuronal loss points to the existence of selective cellular vulnerability to the genetic defect.
- SourceAvailable from: Mark Turmaine[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Neuronal intranuclear inclusions have been found in the brain of a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease and in necropsy brain tissue of patients with Huntington's disease. We suggest that neuronal intranuclear inclusions are the common neuropathology for all inherited diseases caused by expansion of polyglutamine repeats. We also suggest that patients with a pathological diagnosis of neuronal intranuclear hyaline inclusion disease may also have polyglutamine repeat expansions.The Lancet 02/1998; 351(9096):131-3. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 or Machado-Joseph disease (SCA3/MJD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by an unstable and expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat that leads to the expansion of a polyglutamine tract in a protein of unknown function, ataxin-3. We have generated and characterized a panel of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies raised against ataxin-3 and used them to analyze its expression and localization. In Hela cells, multiple isoforms are expressed besides the major 55-kDa form. While the majority of ataxin-3 is cytosolic, both immunocytofluorescence and subcellular fractionation studies indicate the presence of ataxin-3, in particular, of some of the minor isoforms, in the nuclear and mitochodrial compartments. We also show that ataxin-3 can be phosphorylated. In the brain, only one ataxin-3 isoform containing the polyglutamine stretch was detected, and normal and mutated proteins were found equally expressed in all patient brain regions analyzed. In most neurons, ataxin-3 had a cytoplasmic, dendritic, and axonal localization. Some neurons presented an additional nuclear localization. Ataxin-3 is widely expressed throughout the brain, with a variable intensity specific for subpopulations of neurons. Its expression is, however, not restricted to regions that show intranuclear inclusions and neurodegeneration in SCA3/MJD.Neurobiology of Disease 12/1998; 5(5):335-47. · 5.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by neurodegeneration of the cerebellum, spinal cord and brainstem. A 1.2-Megabase stretch of DNA from the short arm of chromosome 6 containing the SCA1 locus was isolated in a yeast artificial chromosome contig and subcloned into cosmids. A highly polymorphic CAG repeat was identified in this region and was found to be unstable and expanded in individuals with SCA1. There is a direct correlation between the size of the (CAG)n repeat expansion and the age-of-onset of SCA1, with larger alleles occurring in juvenile cases. We also show that the repeat is present in a 10 kilobase mRNA transcript. SCA1 is therefore the fifth genetic disorder to display a mutational mechanism involving an unstable trinucleotide repeat.Nature Genetics 08/1993; 4(3):221-6. · 35.21 Impact Factor