Suppression of adenosine A(3) receptor-mediated hypotension and mast cell degranulation in the rat by dexamethasone.
ABSTRACT Dexamethasone increases the expression of adenosine A(3) receptors and augments degranulation in response to their activation in the rat basophilic leukemia cell line, RBL-2H3. We have studied the effects of dexamethasone on mast cell activation induced by A(3) receptor stimulation in vivo. Administration of the A(3) receptor agonist APNEA [N(6)-2-(4 aminophenyl)ethyladenosine; 10-30 microg kg(-1) i.v.] to anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats induced falls in blood pressure. Pretreatment with dexamethasone (1 mg kg(-1), i.p., -24 h) blocked the hypotensive response to APNEA but not those induced by the A(1) receptor agonist N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine, the A(2A) receptor agonist 2-[p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine, or the mast cell degranulating agent compound 48/80 (100-300 microg kg(-1), i.v.). APNEA (10 and 30 microg kg(-1), i.v.) and compound 48/80 (100 and 300 microg kg(-1), i.v.) increased plasma histamine concentrations dose dependently. Pretreatment with dexamethasone significantly inhibited the increases induced by the lower doses of each compound. APNEA induced degranulation of mast cells in thymus but not in skin or skeletal muscle, whereas compound 48/80 induced degranulation in each tissue. Pretreatment with dexamethasone inhibited APNEA-induced degranulation of mast cells in the thymus and slightly, yet significantly, reduced degranulation induced by compound 48/80. Thus, in contrast to the findings in RBL-2H3 cells in vitro, in the whole animal, dexamethasone down-regulates the response of the mast cell to A(3) receptor activation. The qualitatively similar effects on compound 48/80 suggest that dexamethasone suppresses mast cell responsiveness by modulating site(s) downstream from the adenosine A(3) receptor, possibly at the level of the G(i) family of trimeric GTP-binding proteins.
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ABSTRACT: Adenosine induces airways obstruction in subjects with asthma, but the receptor subtype responsible remains unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the pharmacological profile of adenosine receptor subtypes mediating contraction and to investigate the mechanism in normal and passively sensitized human airway tissues. Contraction of bronchial rings isolated from resected lung tissue of patients with lung carcinoma was measured in response to nonselective adenosine receptor agonists, 5-AMP and 5'-(N-Ethylcarboxamido)adenosine, and A(1) receptor agonist, N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine, in the absence and presence of selective adenosine receptor antagonists. Pharmacological antagonists, chemical ablation of airway sensory nerves using capsaicin, and passive sensitization of tissue with serum from subjects with atopy and asthma was used to investigate the mechanism of contraction. Human bronchial tissue contracted in a concentration-dependent manner to adenosine agonists that showed a rank order of activity of A(1) > A(2B) > A2(A) = A3. The maximum contractile response to N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (231.0 ± 23.8 mg) was significantly reduced in tissues chemically treated with capsaicin to desensitize sensory nerves (desensitized: 101.6 ± 15.2 mg; P < 0.05). Passive sensitization significantly augmented the contraction induced by adenosine A(1) receptor activation (sensitized: 389.7 ± 52.8 mg versus nonsensitized; P < 0.05), which was linked to the release of leukotrienes, and not histamine (MK571: 25.5 ± 1.7 mg; epinastine 260.0 ± 22.2 mg versus control; P < 0.05). This study provides evidence for a role for adenosine A(1) receptors in eliciting human airway smooth muscle constriction, which, in part, is mediated by the action of capsaicin sensitive sensory nerves.American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 06/2011; 45(6):1222-31. · 5.13 Impact Factor