Serum interleukin-6 and hemoglobin as physiological correlates in the geriatric syndrome of frailty: A pilot study
ABSTRACT To determine specific physiological correlates of the geriatric syndrome of frailty that warrant further investigation.
Population-based case-control study.
General Clinical Research Center at Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center.
Community-dwelling adults aged 74 and older from Baltimore, Maryland.
Frailty status was determined using a recently validated screening tool that consists of weight loss, fatigue, low levels of physical activity, and measurements of grip strength and walking speed. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and standard complete blood count was performed using a Coulter counter.
Eleven frail and 19 nonfrail subjects with mean age +/- standard deviation of 84.9 +/- 6.7 vs 81.3 +/- 4.1 years, respectively, completed the study. The frail subjects had significantly higher serum IL-6 levels and significantly lower hemoglobin and hematocrit than the nonfrail subjects (4.4 +/-2.9 vs 2.8 +/- 1.6 pg/mL, 12.1 +/- 1.1 vs 13.9 +/- 1.0 g/dL, and 35.8% +/- 3.1% vs 40.6% +/- 2.8%, respectively). No significant difference was observed in mean corpuscular volume, red blood cell distribution width, or white blood cell and platelet counts between the frail and nonfrail groups. Furthermore, there was an inverse correlation between serum IL-6 level and hemoglobin (Pearson's correlation coefficient: -0.46) and hematocrit (-0.48) in the frail group but not in the nonfrail group.
These results suggest that frail subjects have evidence of inflammation and lower hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. This subclinical anemia is normocytic and is hence unlikely due to myelosuppression or iron deficiency and is potentially related to the increased chronic inflammatory state marked by serum IL-6 elevation. Further studies are indicated to better characterize the immune and hematological changes that underlie frailty.
SourceAvailable from: Ya Ruth Huo[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objectives In older persons, the combination of osteoporosis and sarcopenia has been proposed as a subset of frailer individuals at higher risk of falls and fractures. However, the particular nutritional status of the sarco-osteoporotic (SOP) patients remains unknown. The goal of this study was to obtain a comprehensive picture of nutritional status in SOP patients. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Falls & Fractures Clinic, Nepean Hospital (Penrith, Australia). Participants 680 subjects (mean age=79, 65% female) assessed between 2008-2013. Measurements Assessment included medical history, mini-nutritional assessment, physical examination, bone densitometry and body composition by DXA, and blood tests for nutritional status (albumin, creatinine, hemoglobin, vitamin D, vitamin B-12, calcium, phosphate and folate). Patients were divided in 4 groups: 1) osteopenia/osteoporosis (BMDANOVA and chi square analysis. Multivariable linear regression evaluated the association between the groups and measures of nutritional parameters. Results Sarcopenia was present in 47.4% of those with osteopenia (167/352) and 62.7% in those with osteoporosis (91/145). Mean age of the SOP was 80.4±7 years. SOP patients showed significantly higher prevalence of falls and fractures. Univariate analyses showed that SOP were more likely than normal to have a BMI6 remained independently associated with SOP after adjustment for all variables including inflammatory conditions. Hypoalbuminemia ( Conclusions In approaching SOP patients, early prevention protocols directed to optimize their nutritional status would be a key strategy to prevent poor outcomes such as falls and fractures in this high risk population. Therefore, nutritional assessment and early nutritional supplementation should be essential domains in this strategy.The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging 01/2015; 19(4):474-80. DOI:10.1007/s12603-014-0543-z · 2.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aging is the greatest risk factor for the development of chronic diseases such as arthritis, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, Alzheimer's disease, macular degeneration, frailty, and certain forms of cancers. It is widely regarded that chronic inflammation may be a common link in all these age-related diseases. This raises the question, can one alter the course of aging and potentially slow the development of all chronic diseases by manipulating the mechanisms that cause age-related inflammation? Emerging evidence suggests that pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-18 show an age-dependent regulation implicating inflammasome-mediated caspase-1 activation in the aging process. The Nod-like receptor (NLR) family of innate immune cell sensors, such as the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain-containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome controls the caspase-1 activation in myeloid-lineage cells in several organs during aging. The NLRP3 inflammasome is especially relevant to aging as it can get activated in response to structurally diverse damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) such as extracellular ATP, excess glucose, ceramides, amyloids, urate, and cholesterol crystals, all of which increase with age. Interestingly, reduction in NLRP3-mediated inflammation prevents age-related insulin resistance, bone loss, cognitive decline, and frailty. NLRP3 is a major driver of age-related inflammation and therefore dietary or pharmacological approaches to lower aberrant inflammasome activation holds promise in reducing multiple chronic diseases of age and may enhance healthspan. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.Immunological Reviews 05/2015; 265(1):63-74. DOI:10.1111/imr.12295 · 12.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Anemia and frailty are both common in older people and are associated with adverse health outcomes. There have been some cross-sectional studies of anemia and frailty but no longitudinal studies. The objectives of this study were to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between anemia and frailty in older Australian men. A total of 1666 men aged 70 years and older from the Concord Health and Aging in Men Project were assessed at baseline (2005-2007), 1314 men came for the 2-year follow-up between 2007 and 2009, and of those, 917 men returned for the 5-year follow-up between 2012 and 2013. The main outcome measurement was frailty, assessed using the Cardiovascular Health Study method. Anemia was defined as a hemoglobin levels <13.0 g/dL. Covariates included age, income, body mass index, measures of health, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and inflammatory markers (white cell count and albumin). The prevalence of anemia was 14.6% at baseline, 16.2% at 2-year follow-up, and 19.4% at 5-year follow-up. Prevalence of frailty was 9.1% at baseline and 9.7 % at both 2- and 5-year follow-up. Among men aged 70-74 at baseline, prevalence of frailty was 4.5%, but at 5-year follow-up the prevalence was 9.0%. There were significant cross-sectional associations between anemia and frailty in unadjusted [odds ratio, [OR 5.03 (95% confidence interval, CI 3.50, 7.25, P < .0001)] and in fully adjusted analysis [OR 2.90 (95% CI 1.87, 4.51, P < .0001)]. Generalized estimating equations time-lag models were used to examine the longitudinal associations between repeated measurements of hemoglobin and frailty. There were significant associations between measurements of anemia and frailty in unadjusted [OR 2.51 (95% CI 1.58, 4.00, P < .0001] and in fully adjusted analysis (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.14, 2.85, P = .01). Anemia was associated with frailty in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, and anemia precedes frailty in men who were nonfrail at baseline. Low hemoglobin levels among patients may alert clinicians to the increased risk of frailty. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jamda.2015.02.014 · 4.78 Impact Factor