Impaired 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine accumulation in T-lymphoblastoid cells as a mechanism of acquired resistance independent of multidrug resistant protein 4 with a possible role for ATP-binding cassette C11.
ABSTRACT Cellular factors may contribute to the decreased efficacy of chemotherapy in HIV infection. Indeed, prolonged treatment with nucleoside analogues, such as azidothymidine (AZT), 2',3'-deoxycytidine or 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine, induces cellular resistance. We have developed a human T lymphoblastoid cell line (CEM 3TC) that is selectively resistant to the antiproliferative effect of 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC) because the CEM 3TC cells were equally sensitive to AZT, as well as the antimitotic agent, vinblastine. The anti-retroviral activity of 3TC against HIV-1 was also severely impaired in the CEM 3TC cells. Despite similar deoxycytidine kinase activity and unchanged uptake of nucleosides such as AZT and 2'-deoxycytidine, CEM 3TC had profoundly impaired 3TC accumulation. Further studies indicated that CEM 3TC retained much less 3TC. However, despite a small overexpression of multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 4, additional studies with cells specifically engineered to overexpress MRP4 demonstrated there was no impact on either 3TC accumulation or efflux. Finally, an increased expression of the MRP5 homologue, ATP-binding cassette C11 (ABCC11) was observed in the CEM 3TC cells. We speculate that the decreased 3TC accumulation in the CEM 3TC might be due to the upregulation of ABCC11.
European Heart Journal 09/2001; 22(16):1512. · 10.48 Impact Factor
Article: Localization of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in human sweat glands: an immunohistochemical study using a monoclonal antibody.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We studied the distribution of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) by use of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against human kidney gamma-GT in human sweat glands. In the eccrine sweat gland, the enzyme was localized along the luminal membrane and small apocrine extrusions of the superficial cells of the secretory portion. The intercellular canaliculi between basal cells were occasionally immunoreactive. In the secretory portion of the apocrine gland, luminal membrane and apocrine extrusions of various sizes and stages at the apices of the secretory cells exhibited positive reactions. Immunoreaction was also seen in the Golgi area of the cuboidal secretory cells. No positive reaction was observed in the myoepithelial cells of either gland or in the excretory duct cells.Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 11/1990; 38(10):1433-44. · 2.72 Impact Factor