A new whole-mouth gustatory test procedure. I. Thresholds and principal components analysis in healthy men and women
Gustatory testing using the whole-mouth method was performed in 123 healthy young male and female subjects. The average thresholds for detection and recognition of the four basic tastes were not greatly different from the normal thresholds previously reported in Japan: a 0.0165 M solution of sucrose for sweet taste, a 0.0316 M solution of table salt for salty taste, a 0.000743 M solution of tartaric acid for sour taste and a 0.0000203 M solution of quinine hydrochloride for bitter taste. These results indicate that the whole-mouth gustatory test procedure employed in this study may be useful for evaluating gustatory function clinically. Principal components analysis confirmed that sweet, salty, sour and bitter are indeed the four basic tastes and revealed that the sensation of taste is detected before the specific taste is recognized, regardless of the specific taste tested.
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- "Taste tests were performed using a whole-mouth method . A 3% sucrose solution was used as sweet-taste test, 0.4% sodium chloride as the salt-taste, 0.05% tartaric acid as the sour-taste, and 0.004% quinine as the bitter-taste. "
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ABSTRACT: There is some research on taste disorder/hyposensitivity in special groups such as the elderly or patients presenting with specific taste problems, however few studies have been conducted among young populations. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of taste hyposensitivity and to investigate the relationship between taste hyposensitivity and oral health status in Japanese schoolchildren.
Subjects were 237 primary and 112 junior high school students in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. In total, 349 (boys: 181, girls: 168) students aged 6-15 years participated in the study. Oral examinations and whole-mouth taste tests using four tastes (sweet, salt, sour and bitter) solutions were conducted on the subjects. A subject who could not recognize the taste of the solution was defined as demonstrating hyposensitivity.
Hyposensitivity was observed in 6.3% of all subjects for sweet-taste, 14.3% for salt-taste, 20.9% for sour-taste and 6.0% for bitter-taste. The prevalence of sweet, sour and bitter-taste hyposensitivity decreased as the subjects' grade advanced. In contrast, the prevalence of salt-taste hyposensitivity increased in 7th-9th grade subjects. Furthermore, the prevalence of bitter taste hyposensitivity was significantly higher in males than females among 1st-3rd graders.Taste hyposensitivity had little association with oral health status, such as decayed teeth, filled teeth, dental plaque, gingival status and tongue coating.
In this study, taste hyposensitivity was observed in 6.0% - 20.9% of the students. There was little association between taste hyposensitivity and oral health status. The current study implies that the factors affecting the taste hyposensitivity in children may different from those in the elderly. Therefore it is necessary to further investigate the causes of taste hyposensitivity among younger generation.
BMC Oral Health 04/2014; 14(1):36. DOI:10.1186/1472-6831-14-36 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Taste detection and recognition thresholds for the 4 basic tastes were measured in 670 healthy subjects using a new whole-mouth method in which test solutions of the 4 basic tastes were diluted 1:1 with distilled water successively in 13 steps. The taste thresholds were measured by spraying a 1 ml aliquot of solution into the mouth, starting with the lowest concentration, and asking the subject to swallow and note if a taste was detected and, if so, which one. The mouth was rinsed with distilled water only between different taste test solutions. Multiple comparison analysis showed a clear age-related increase in thresholds for salty, sour and bitter tastes for subjects in their eighth decade of life. From the third decade onwards, female subjects had significantly lower thresholds compared to males for sour taste in about half of the age groups and for salty and bitter tastes in some age groups. In contrast, for 18- and 19-year-old subjects, the gustatory thresholds of male subjects were lower than those of female subjects. Regarding smoking, male smokers in their third decade had significantly higher thresholds for bitter taste compared to male non-smokers in this age group.
Acta oto-laryngologica. Supplementum 02/2002; 122(546):49-59. DOI:10.1080/00016480260046418
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ABSTRACT: Changes in taste perception occur in a significant proportion of cancer patients. Among cancer patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) in head and neck area, the vast majority reports an altered taste sense during and after treatments. Taste impairment starts a few weeks after the beginning of irradiation, and almost all such patients experienced loss of taste acuity at a dose of 60 Gy. Some studies investigated the four basic taste intensities (sweet, salty, sour and bitter) and the umami taste, and several of these reports identified diminished threshold sensitivity for at least one taste quality. Six months to one year after RT, taste acuity recovers to its previous level in many patients, but some patients show incomplete or no recovery even several years later. Taste impairment has profound effects on patients' quality of life because is associated with weight loss through reduced appetite and altered patterns of food intake. Damage to the major salivary glands during head and neck RT leads to disturbance in taste acuity. With the implementation of new radiation techniques, such as conformal and intensity-modulated RT in head and neck irradiation, the late-radiation effects can probably be reduced, but the remaining sequelae are still bothersome to the patients.
Cancer Treatment Reviews 12/2006; 32(7):541-7. DOI:10.1016/j.ctrv.2006.06.003 · 7.59 Impact Factor
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