A new whole-mouth gustatory test procedure. 1. Thresholds and principal components analysis in healthy men and women.
ABSTRACT Gustatory testing using the whole-mouth method was performed in 123 healthy young male and female subjects. The average thresholds for detection and recognition of the four basic tastes were not greatly different from the normal thresholds previously reported in Japan: a 0.0165 M solution of sucrose for sweet taste, a 0.0316 M solution of table salt for salty taste, a 0.000743 M solution of tartaric acid for sour taste and a 0.0000203 M solution of quinine hydrochloride for bitter taste. These results indicate that the whole-mouth gustatory test procedure employed in this study may be useful for evaluating gustatory function clinically. Principal components analysis confirmed that sweet, salty, sour and bitter are indeed the four basic tastes and revealed that the sensation of taste is detected before the specific taste is recognized, regardless of the specific taste tested.
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ABSTRACT: Long term taste dysfunction after otologic surgery has never been characterized in children. The aim of this study is to determine the rates of gustatory dysfunction in normal and postotologic surgery in children. Cross-sectional study. One hundred sixty children visiting a tertiary pediatric otolaryngology clinic, 4 to 18 years of age, were recruited. Surgical groups included patients who had undergone tympanoplasty, combined approach mastoidectomy, modified radical mastoidectomy, and unilateral and bilateral cochlear implantation. They were then tested using a Rion TR-06 electrogustometer (Sensonics, Inc., Haddon Heights, NJ) using a standardized protocol to assess chorda tympani nerve function. An abnormal gustometry result was defined as any recording of > or =16 dB or a difference of 6 dB between ears. The control group had a 9% (5/61) abnormal electrogustometric threshold rate. Rates of dysfunction after surgery were: tympanoplasty (27%, 4/15), combined approach mastoidectomy (30%, 11/29), modified radical mastoidectomy (50%, 4/8). Unilateral cochlear implantation yielded a 26% (7/27) per ear risk of dysfunction, whereas bilateral cochlear implantation had a 5% (2/40) per ear risk. There is a 9% baseline level of electrogustometric abnormality in the pediatric population, which suggests a subclinical level of gustatory dysfunction. Normal electrogustometry was found in 50% of children after modified radical mastoidectomy, suggesting a degree of neural regenerative capacity. Finally, cochlear implantation, using newer surgical techniques (in the bilateral cochlear implant group) has a low risk for causing gustatory dysfunction, reducing concerns over the safety profile of bilateral cochlear implantation.The Laryngoscope 07/2009; 119(10):2061-5. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is some research on taste disorder/hyposensitivity in special groups such as the elderly or patients presenting with specific taste problems, however few studies have been conducted among young populations. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of taste hyposensitivity and to investigate the relationship between taste hyposensitivity and oral health status in Japanese schoolchildren. Subjects were 237 primary and 112 junior high school students in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. In total, 349 (boys: 181, girls: 168) students aged 6-15 years participated in the study. Oral examinations and whole-mouth taste tests using four tastes (sweet, salt, sour and bitter) solutions were conducted on the subjects. A subject who could not recognize the taste of the solution was defined as demonstrating hyposensitivity. Hyposensitivity was observed in 6.3% of all subjects for sweet-taste, 14.3% for salt-taste, 20.9% for sour-taste and 6.0% for bitter-taste. The prevalence of sweet, sour and bitter-taste hyposensitivity decreased as the subjects' grade advanced. In contrast, the prevalence of salt-taste hyposensitivity increased in 7th-9th grade subjects. Furthermore, the prevalence of bitter taste hyposensitivity was significantly higher in males than females among 1st-3rd graders.Taste hyposensitivity had little association with oral health status, such as decayed teeth, filled teeth, dental plaque, gingival status and tongue coating. In this study, taste hyposensitivity was observed in 6.0% - 20.9% of the students. There was little association between taste hyposensitivity and oral health status. The current study implies that the factors affecting the taste hyposensitivity in children may different from those in the elderly. Therefore it is necessary to further investigate the causes of taste hyposensitivity among younger generation.BMC Oral Health 04/2014; 14(1):36. · 1.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although dysgeusia is a common adverse event in chemotherapy patients; it has not been evaluated using objective methods, and its prevalence and frequency have not been quantified. Salt-impregnated taste strips were used to objectively assess dysgeusia in patients receiving chemotherapy at Akita University (n = 38) and those off chemotherapy (n = 9). Participant characteristics, and ongoing and previous chemotherapies were evaluated, and their associations with dysgeusia analyzed. Dysgeusia developed in 38.8% (14/38) of chemotherapy patients, and was most prevalent in patients receiving 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or its oral analogs (48.1%, 13/27). Particularly, dysgeusia developed in 55.6% (10/18) of patients receiving oral 5-FU analogs; however, prevalence in patients receiving and off chemotherapy was not significantly different. Patients aged >=70 years also tended to experience dysgeusia (75.0%, 6/8). Association with dysgeusia may be higher for some chemotherapeutic drugs. Dysgeusia should be routinely assessed in chemotherapy patients with objective methods such as paper strips; interventions for its prevention may be required.BMC Palliative Care 10/2013; 12(1):38. · 1.12 Impact Factor