Repair of tetralogy of Fallot in infancy with a transventricular or a transatrial approach.
ABSTRACT The optimal time and approach of repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) remain controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome following repair of TOF in infants with particular regard to the surgical approach used.
One hundred and sixty infants (mean age 195+/-89 days, range 11-364 days) undergoing repair of a simple TOF were studied. Between 1974 and 2000, a transventricular approach (RV) was used in 91 and between 1988 and 2000, a transatrial (RA) approach in 69 infants. Ten of these infants (6.2%) had a previous palliative shunt (four in the RV versus six in the RA group). A transannular patch (TAP) was inserted in 96 (60%) infants (76 versus 20). Follow-up was complete (mean 14.5+/-5.2 versus 6+/-1 years).
There were three operative deaths (1.9%), (two in RV versus one in RA group). A re-operation for right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO) was performed in 19 patients (3 versus 16). Ten-year freedom from re-operation for RVOTO (+/-standard error of the mean) was 88+/-4% (98+/-2 versus 72+/-6%, P<0.0001). Within the RA group, 5-year freedom from re-operation for RVOTO for those who had a TAP was 79+/-9% and it was 75+/-4% for those having a simple repair. Six patients in the RV group required pulmonary valve replacement (PVR). Ten-year freedom from PVR was 98+/-1% (97+/-2 versus 100%, P=0.3). There were two late deaths, one in each group. Ten-year survival was 97+/-1%. One patient in the RV group developed late recurrent ventricular tachycardia requiring the implantation of a defibrillator. At most recent echocardiography, all but the patient who had the defibrillator had good right and left ventricular function.
Transventricular and transatrial repair of TOF in infancy, are associated with an acceptable operative risk, low incidence of late arrhythmia, good bi-ventricular function and excellent survival. In our experience, however, transatrial repair has a disturbing incidence of early and mid-term residual or recurrent RVOTO, even when a TAP has been used.
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ABSTRACT: Tetralogy of Fallot involves an abnormal embryological development in which an unequal conotruncal division results in a small pulmonary artery and a great aortic artery. In its most severe form, the infundibulum of the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery can be atretic with the anomaly commonly referred to as pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect. Reported here is a case of prenatal diagnosis of tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia. The characteristic ultrasonographic findings included a small pulmonary artery, a large aorta, and a ventricular septal defect. The search for an atretic pulmonary valve and a ductus arteriosus with reversed blood flow was emphasized in the presence of asymmetrically dilated fetal heart. After birth, the newborn received single-stage total correction for the tetralogy of Fallot and was discharged a month later in stable condition. In this case report, the neonatal angiogram is added for confirming the prenatal diagnosis, which is of value in teaching fetal echocardiography to novice practitioners. We believe a prenatal diagnosis of tetralogy of Fallot can improve neonatal outcome.Journal of the Chinese Medical Association 06/2008; 71(5):262-6. · 0.79 Impact Factor
Article: Assessment of a right-ventricular infundibulum-sparing approach in transatrial-transpulmonary repair of tetralogy of Fallot.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The study aimed to evaluate the outcome of transatrial-transpulmonary repair of tetralogy of Fallot in relation to a right-ventricular outflow tract (RVOT)-sparing surgery. Based on the surgical management of right-ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO) at repair of tetralogy of Fallot, 140 children were retrospectively divided into three groups: (1) pulmonary valve (PV)-sparing, (2) infundibulum-sparing and (3) extended trans-annular patch (TAP). Clinical and echocardiographic outcome was assessed with regards to three equally divided study time eras between January 1994 and June 2010. Over a 15-year study period, median age decreased from 11 (2-101) to 5 (1-11) months (p<0.001), whereas type of RVOT repair changed significantly between the first and the last era (group 1: 18-40%, group 2: 25-40% vs group 3: 57-20% (p=0.002)). Mortality was 0%. Complications were mainly related to clinical restrictive RV physiology (27%) and arrhythmia (10%). This cardiac morbidity remained constant over the eras and was associated with younger age (p=0.04), increased postoperative right ventricle/left ventricle (RV/LV) pressure ratio (p=0.01) and type of RVOT repair at the cost of TAP (p=0.03). Median follow-up of 8 years (1-16 years) showed an overall freedom from RVOT re-operation of 84% and 73%, respectively at 5 and 10 years. Most re-operations were for residual/recurrent RVOTO (12%) occurring more frequently in the latter era: 16% versus 7% in era 1 (p=0.08). Late echocardiographic evaluation revealed a strong correlation between severity of pulmonary regurgitation and increased RV/LV size ratio, which was mainly determined by increased TAP length (p<0.001) and duration of follow-up (p=0.06). In a 15-year's experience with transatrial-transpulmonary correction of tetralogy of Fallot, a valve- and infundibulum-sparing approach has been advanced by lowering the age for elective repair. This change has been performed without compromising immediate clinical outcome, despite an increased early re-operation rate for residual obstruction. However, longer follow-up will disclose whether this approach is protective against progressive and late RV dysfunction.European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 05/2011; 41(1):126-33. · 2.40 Impact Factor