A 12-Year Prospective Study of the Long-term Effects of Early Child Physical Maltreatment on Psychological, Behavioral, and Academic Problems in Adolescence

Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0545, USA.
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine (Impact Factor: 5.73). 09/2002; 156(8):824-30. DOI: 10.1001/archpedi.156.8.824
Source: PubMed


To determine whether child physical maltreatment early in life has long-term effects on psychological, behavioral, and academic problems independent of other characteristics associated with maltreatment.
Prospective longitudinal study with data collected annually from 1987 through 1999.
Randomly selected, community-based samples of 585 children from the ongoing Child Development Project were recruited the summer before children entered kindergarten in 3 geographic sites. Seventy-nine percent continued to participate in grade 11. The initial in-home interviews revealed that 69 children (11.8%) had experienced physical maltreatment prior to kindergarten matriculation.
Adolescent assessment of school grades, standardized test scores, absences, suspensions, aggression, anxiety/depression, other psychological problems, drug use, trouble with police, pregnancy, running away, gang membership, and educational aspirations.
Adolescents maltreated early in life were absent from school more than 1.5 as many days, were less likely to anticipate attending college compared with nonmaltreated adolescents, and had levels of aggression, anxiety/depression, dissociation, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, social problems, thought problems, and social withdrawal that were on average more than three quarters of an SD higher than those of their nonmaltreated counterparts. The findings held after controlling for family and child characteristics correlated with maltreatment.
Early physical maltreatment predicts adolescent psychological and behavioral problems, beyond the effects of other factors associated with maltreatment. Undetected early physical maltreatment in community populations represents a major problem worthy of prevention.

Download full-text


Available from: Joseph C Crozier, Jan 11, 2015
50 Reads
  • Source
    • "As youths' bonding decreased, their risk of problematic substance use increased. Adolescents who have experienced maltreatment as young children are more likely to have school absences than their peers who have not experienced maltreatment (Lansford et al. 2002), and may be less likely to be engaged in school (Bender 2012). Traube et al. (2012) found that child-welfare-involved youth who were less engaged in school were at greater risk of substance use. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Child-welfare-involved youth may lack protective social bonds that could reduce their risk of substance use. We investigated whether caregiver, school, or peer bonds predict distinct patterns of substance use among child-welfare-involved youth. The sample included 720 participants in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II. Latent class analysis (LCA) and the three-step approach to incorporate indicator variables onto the latent classes were used. We found the following classes: (1) severe polysubstance use; (2) moderate polysubstance use; and (3) low use. Youth bonded to primary caregivers were less likely to be severe polysubstance drug users, but caregiver bonds did not protect against moderate polysubstance use. School bonds protected against severe polysubstance and moderate polysubstance. Youth bonded to deviant peers were more likely to be in the severe polysubstance use and moderate polysubstance use classes. Interventions targeting child-welfare-involved youth need to account for social bonds’ effect on substance use.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 09/2015; DOI:10.1080/02791072.2015.1075091 · 1.10 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Community-connected risk factors are neighbourhood violence and crime, lack of social support and social or cultural discrimination. A number of longitudinal studies, such as those by Cicchetti and Manly (2001) and Lansford et al. (2002), have shown that children who suffer neglect are at risk of school failure, anxiety, depression, aggression and delinquency during childhood, adolescence and adulthood. D e s p i t e t h e i r d i s a d v a n t a g e d backgrounds, coupled with various risk factors, some students demonstrate academic resilience and enjoy satisfactory or even excellent academic achievements (Borman & Overman, 2004; Martin & Marsh, 2006). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rendering students resilient and intellectually rigorous is a primary objective of education in Malaysia. The Education Ministry has emphasised the enhancement of problem-solving and critical thinking skills, but reported that the skills performance of students in secondary schools and higher education is below the targeted proficiency level. According to the Ministry, the educational institutions are responsible for the lack of optimal performance. However, the unsatisfactory result might also be ascribed to the students' overall experience of adversity. Some students, against all odds, are academically resilient. How Malaysian secondary and higher-education students construct, develop and demonstrate academic resilience has yet to be investigated. This review of related literature is, therefore, aimed at explaining how the academic resilience approach relates to cognitive task performance of the students. Further investigations can provide guidelines to help students who are not academically resilient. This would facilitate achievement of the objective .
    Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities 08/2015; 23(3):553-566.
  • Source
    • "In particular, traumaexposed individuals are reported to be particularly vulnerable to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Feeny, Foa, Treadwell, & March, 2004), with rates varying from 10% to 100% (see Pynoos, Steinberg, & Wraith, 1995). Research further indicates that individuals who are subjected to maltreatment are at increased risk for behavioral and psychological problems such as anxiety disorders, depression, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), suicide ideation and attempts, substance abuse, and disordered eating (Feeny et al., 2004; Fergusson, Boden, & Horwood, 2008; Lansford et al., 2002). Previous research also indicates that experiencing multiple types of victimization (as opposed to a single type such as physical or sexual abuse) increases the likelihood of maladjustment (Holt, Finkelhor, & Kaufman-Kantor, 2007). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Few studies have incorporated multiple dimensions of victimization or examined whether victimization profiles differ by gender. Consequently, the present study sought to extend prior research by using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify naturally occurring subgroups of individuals who have experienced victimization, and to test for sex differences. Data from 4,016 females and 3,032 males in the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (APMS) were analyzed. Evidence of the existence of similar victimization subtypes for both males and females emerged, with a three-class solution providing the best fit to the data for both sexes. Furthermore, the classes were labeled "low victimization" (the baseline class; Class 3), the "high victimization class" (Class 1), and "the bullying and domestic violence class" (Class 2) for both males and females. Multinomial logistic regression was used to interpret the nature of the latent classes, or groups, by estimating the associations with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) dimensions, suicide attempt, and non-suicidal self-injury. Although different constellations of victimization experiences did not emerge through the gender-specific analyses, the nature of the associations between class membership and external variables differed between males and females. Findings highlight the heterogeneity of victimization experiences and their relations to functioning, and have implications for policy and practice implications. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence 03/2015; DOI:10.1177/0886260515576967 · 1.64 Impact Factor
Show more