Article

Development of a Larval Bioassay for Susceptibility of Cat Fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) to Imidacloprid

Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside 92521-0314, USA.
Journal of Medical Entomology (Impact Factor: 1.82). 08/2002; 39(4):671-4. DOI: 10.1603/0022-2585-39.4.671
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Strategies for controlling cat fleas, Ctenocephalidesfelisfelis (Bouché), have undergone dramatic changes in the past 5 yr. With the advent of on-animal treatments with residual activity the potential for the development of insecticide resistance increases. A larval bioassay was developed to determine the baseline susceptibility of field-collected strains of cat fleas to imidacloprid. All four laboratory strains tested showed a similar level of susceptibility to imidacloprid. Advantages of this bioassay are that smaller numbers of fleas are required because flea eggs are collected for the test. Insect growth regulators and other novel insecticides can also be evaluated. Using a discriminating dose, the detection of reduced susceptibility in field strains can be determined with as few as 40 eggs.

4 Followers
 · 
276 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This review defines insecticide/acaricide resistance and describes the history, evolution, types, mechanisms, and detection of resistance as it applies to chemicals currently used against fleas and ticks of dogs and cats and summarizes resistance reported to date. We introduce the concept of refugia as it applies to flea and tick resistance and discuss strategies to minimize the impact and inevitable onset of resistance to newer classes of insecticides. Our purpose is to provide the veterinary practitioner with information needed to investigate suspected lack of efficacy, respond to lack of efficacy complaints from their clients, and evaluate the relative importance of resistance as they strive to relieve their patients and satisfy their clients when faced with flea and tick infestations that are difficult to resolve. We conclude that causality of suspected lack of insecticide/acaricide efficacy is most likely treatment deficiency, not resistance.
    Parasites & Vectors 01/2014; 7(1):8. DOI:10.1186/1756-3305-7-8 · 3.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: These second edition guidelines, updated from the 2007 version (Marchiondo et al., 2007), are intended to assist the planning and conduct of laboratory and clinical studies to assess the efficacy of ectoparasiticides applied to dogs or cats for the purpose of treating, preventing and controlling flea and tick infestations. Major revisions to this second edition include guidelines on the assessment of systemic flea and tick products, an update of the geographical distribution of the common fleas and ticks species on dogs and cats, determination of flea and tick efficacy based on geometric versus arithmetic means with respect to geographic regulatory agencies, modification of tick categorization in the assessment of efficacy, expanded guidelines on repellency and anti-feeding effects, enhanced practical field study guidance, and considerations on the ranges of flea and ticks for infestations in laboratory studies. The term ectoparasiticide includes insecticidal and acaricidal compounds, as well as insect growth regulators. The range of biological activities from animal treatment that are considered include: repellency and anti-feeding effects, knockdown, speed of kill, immediate and persistent lethal effects, and interference with egg fertility and subsequent development of off-host life cycle stages. Information is provided on the selection of animals, dose determination, dose confirmation and field studies, record keeping, interpretation of results and animal welfare. These guidelines are also intended to assist regulatory authorities involved in the approval and registration of new topical or systemic ectoparasiticides, and to facilitate the worldwide adoption of harmonized procedures.
    Veterinary Parasitology 05/2013; 194(1):84-97. · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper describes how to accomplish multi-dimensional separation of concerns (MDSOC) with Hyper/J/sup TM/, a tool available for free download, in the context of standard Java/sup TM/ development. Hyper/J does not require any special languages or language variants, compilers, development environments, or processes - it works with standard Java, using any compiler, development environment, methodology and process. It can be used at any stage of the software lifecycle - from design and initial development of code, to the evolution of pre-existing code (whether or not it was developed using Hyper/J), to the adaptation and integration of separately developed components.

Preview

Download
13 Downloads
Available from