Improved insulin sensitivity and resistance to weight gain in mice null for the Ahsg gene

Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, United States
Diabetes (Impact Factor: 8.47). 08/2002; 51(8):2450-8. DOI: 10.2337/diabetes.51.8.2450
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Fetuin inhibits insulin-induced insulin receptor (IR) autophosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activity in vitro, in intact cells, and in vivo. The fetuin gene (AHSG) is located on human chromosome 3q27, recently identified as a susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Here, we explore insulin signaling, glucose homeostasis, and the effect of a high-fat diet on weight gain, body fat composition, and glucose disposal in mice carrying two null alleles for the gene encoding fetuin, Ahsg (B6, 129-Ahsg(tm1Mbl)). Fetuin knockout (KO) mice demonstrate increased basal and insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IR and the downstream signaling molecules mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt in liver and skeletal muscle. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests in fetuin KO mice indicate significantly enhanced glucose clearance and insulin sensitivity. Fetuin KO mice subjected to euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp show augmented sensitivity to insulin, evidenced by increased glucose infusion rate (P = 0.077) and significantly increased skeletal muscle glycogen content (P < 0.05). When fed a high-fat diet, fetuin KO mice are resistant to weight gain, demonstrate significantly decreased body fat, and remain insulin sensitive. These data suggest that fetuin may play a significant role in regulating postprandial glucose disposal, insulin sensitivity, weight gain, and fat accumulation and may be a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and other insulin-resistant conditions.

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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The aim of this study was to estimate serum fetuin-A levels in lean and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to find possible relationships between fetuin-A, metabolic factors and androgens in these patients. Material and methods: In 25 lean (18-38 years, BMI 17.5-25.0 kg/m(2)) and 15 obese women (20-41 years, BMI 28.1-53.2 kg/m(2)) with PCOS, anthropometric indices and body composition were measured. Fasting serum fetuin-A, adiponectin, leptin, glucose, lipids, hsCRP, insulin, androgens and SHGB levels were estimated. Results: There was no significant difference in serum fetuin-A levels between lean and obese patients: 0.54 +/- 0.13 g/L and 0.60 +/- 0.14 g/L, respectively. We noted a correlation between BMI and leptin levels (r = 0.88; p < 0.0001) and a nearly significant negative correlation between BMI and adiponectin levels (r = -0.53; p = 0.11) in all subjects. In lean patients, we found a correlation between fetuin-A levels and ALT activity (r = 0.44; p < 0.05). In all participants, fetuin-A correlated directly with DHEA-S levels (r = 0.44; p < 0.03). Conclusions: Serum fetuin-A levels were similar in lean and obese women with PCOS. We found an association between fetuin-A levels and ALT activity in lean patients and between fetuin-A levels and DHEA-S in all women. The role of fetuin-A in the mechanisms of insulin resistance, and its potential impact on androgenic hormones production in women with PCOS, need to be tested in further studies.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Matriptase-2 is a type II transmembrane serine protease controlling the expression of hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis. By cleaving hemojuvelin, matriptase-2 suppresses bone morphogenetic protein/sons of mothers against decapentaplegic signaling. So far, the only known putative substrates of matriptase-2 are hemojuvelin and matriptase-2 itself. In this study, fetuin-A (α2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein) was identified in vitro as a substrate of matriptase-2. The protease-substrate interaction was validated by isolating matriptase-2 via the affinity to fetuin-A. Fetuin-A is a liver-derived plasma protein with multiple functions, which is proteolytically processed to yield a disulfide-linked two-chain form. In co-transfected cells, a matriptase-2-dependent conversion of unprocessed fetuin-A into a two-chain form was detected. Conversely, downregulation of endogenously expressed matriptase-2 stabilized fetuin-A. Arg and Lys residues located within the 40 residue spanning connecting peptide of fetuin-A were identified as cleavage sites for matriptase-2. Analysis of hepcidin expression revealed an inductive effect of fetuin-A, which was abolished by matriptase-2. Fetuin-A deficiency in mice resulted in decreased hepcidin mRNA levels. These findings implicate a role of fetuin-A in iron homeostasis and provide new insights into the mechanism of how matriptase-2 might modulate hepcidin expression.
    Biological Chemistry 09/2014; 396(1). DOI:10.1515/hsz-2014-0120 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fetuin-A, which is known to inhibit insulin signaling and pathological calcification, has emerged as a diabetes risk biomarker. In the present study, the association between the fetuin-A levels with insulin resistance (IR) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) was investigated in patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (nT2DM). A total of 100 patients with nT2DM (nT2DM group) and 100 normal glucose tolerance (NGT group) controls were evaluated. The serum fetuin-A level was measured by a commercial solid-phase ELISA kit. The estimate of IR was calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). CIMT was measured by B-mode ultrasound. The association between the serum fetuin-A levels and the metabolic parameters was also analyzed. The serum fetuin-A levels were increased significantly in the nT2DM group compared to the NGT group (368.5±15.6 mg/ml vs. 152.7±7.1 mg/ml, P<0.01). Fetuin-A was positively correlated with HOMA-IR, CIMT, glycated hemoglobin, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and 2 h post-glucose load blood glucose (P<0.05 and P<0.01), but negatively correlated with fasting plasma insulin, 2 h plasma insulin after glucose overload, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and HOMA-β-cell insulin secretion index (P<0.05 and P<0.01). To the best of our knowledge, the study demonstrated for the first time that there is a significant association between the serum fetuin-A levels with IR and CIMT in nT2DM. These results indicate that serum fetuin-A levels can be used as independent markers in the diagnosis of macroangiopathies in nT2DM.
    11/2014; 2(6):839-842. DOI:10.3892/br.2014.356


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May 21, 2014