Insulin-like growth factor 1 induces hypoxia-inducible factor 1-mediated vascular endothelial growth factor expression, which is dependent on MAP kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling in colon cancer cells.
ABSTRACT Stimulation of human colon cancer cells with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) induces expression of the VEGF gene, encoding vascular endothelial growth factor. In this article we demonstrate that exposure of HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells to IGF-1 induces the expression of HIF-1 alpha, the regulated subunit of hypoxia-inducible factor 1, a known transactivator of the VEGF gene. In contrast to hypoxia, which induces HIF-1 alpha expression by inhibiting its ubiquitination and degradation, IGF-1 did not inhibit these processes, indicating an effect on HIF-1 alpha protein synthesis. IGF-1 stimulation of HIF-1 alpha protein and VEGF mRNA expression was inhibited by treating cells with inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and MAP kinase signaling pathways. These inhibitors also blocked the IGF-1-induced phosphorylation of the translational regulatory proteins 4E-BP1, p70 S6 kinase, and eIF-4E, thus providing a mechanism for the modulation of HIF-1 alpha protein synthesis. Forced expression of a constitutively active form of the MAP kinase kinase, MEK2, was sufficient to induce HIF-1 alpha protein and VEGF mRNA expression. Involvement of the MAP kinase pathway represents a novel mechanism for the induction of HIF-1 alpha protein expression in human cancer cells.
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ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a master regulator of the transcriptional response to hypoxia. HIF-1α is one of the most compelling anticancer targets. Andrographolide (Andro) was newly identified to inhibit HIF-1 in T47D cells (a half maximal effective concentration [EC50] of 1.03×10(-7) mol/L), by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. It suppressed HIF-1α protein and gene accumulation, which was dependent on the inhibition of upstream phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. It also abrogated the expression of HIF-1 target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene and protein. Further, Andro inhibited T47D and MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation and colony formation. In addition, it exhibited significant in vivo efficacy and antitumor potential against the MDA-MB-231 xenograft in nude mice. In conclusion, these results highlighted the potential effects of Andro, which inhibits HIF-1, and hence may be developed as an antitumor agent for breast cancer therapy in future.OncoTargets and Therapy 01/2015; 8:427-35. DOI:10.2147/OTT.S76116 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Enhanced glycolysis in cancer, called the Warburg effect, is a well-known feature of cancer metabolism. Recent advances revealed that the Warburg effect is coupled to many other cancer properties, including adaptation to hypoxia and low nutrients, immortalisation, resistance to oxidative stress and apoptotic stimuli, and elevated biomass synthesis. These linkages are mediated by various oncogenic molecules and signals, such as c-Myc, p53, and the insulin/Ras pathway. Furthermore, several regulators of glycolysis have been recently identified as oncogene candidates, including the hypoxia-inducible factor pathway, sirtuins, adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase, glycolytic pyruvate kinase M2, phosphoglycerate mutase, and oncometabolites. The interplay between glycolysis and oncogenic events will be the focus of this review.Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00018-015-1840-3 · 5.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Deregulated signaling via receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) pathways is prevalent in numerous types of human cancers and is commonly correlated with worst prognosis, resistance to various treatment modalities and increased mortality. Likewise, hypoxic tumors are often manifested by aggressive mode of growth and progression following an adaptive genetic reprograming with consequent transcriptional activation of genes encoding proteins, which support tumor survival under low oxygen-related conditions. Consequently, both the HIF system, which is the major mediator of hypoxia-related signaling, and numerous RTK systems are considered critical molecular targets in current cancer therapy. It is now evident that there is an intricate molecular crosstalk between RTKs and hypoxia-related signaling in the sense that hypoxia can activate expression of particular RTKs and/or their corresponding ligands, while some RTK systems have been shown to trigger activation of the HIF machinery. Moreover, signaling regulation of some RTK systems under hypoxic conditions has also been documented to take place in a HIF-independent manner. With this review we aim at overviewing the most current observations on that topic and highlight the importance of the potential co-drugging the HIF system along with particular relevant RTKs for better tumor growth control. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.