Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Induces Hypoxia-inducible Factor 1-mediated Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression, Which is Dependent on MAP Kinase and Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Signaling in Colon Cancer Cells
ABSTRACT Stimulation of human colon cancer cells with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) induces expression of the VEGF gene, encoding vascular endothelial growth factor. In this article we demonstrate that exposure of HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells to IGF-1 induces the expression of HIF-1 alpha, the regulated subunit of hypoxia-inducible factor 1, a known transactivator of the VEGF gene. In contrast to hypoxia, which induces HIF-1 alpha expression by inhibiting its ubiquitination and degradation, IGF-1 did not inhibit these processes, indicating an effect on HIF-1 alpha protein synthesis. IGF-1 stimulation of HIF-1 alpha protein and VEGF mRNA expression was inhibited by treating cells with inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and MAP kinase signaling pathways. These inhibitors also blocked the IGF-1-induced phosphorylation of the translational regulatory proteins 4E-BP1, p70 S6 kinase, and eIF-4E, thus providing a mechanism for the modulation of HIF-1 alpha protein synthesis. Forced expression of a constitutively active form of the MAP kinase kinase, MEK2, was sufficient to induce HIF-1 alpha protein and VEGF mRNA expression. Involvement of the MAP kinase pathway represents a novel mechanism for the induction of HIF-1 alpha protein expression in human cancer cells.
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ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies and is ranked third in mortality among cancer-related diseases. Mitochondria are intracellular organelles that are responsible for energy metabolism and cellular homeostasis, and mitochondrial dysfunction has been regarded as a hallmark of cancer. Over the past decades, several types of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) alterations have been identified in human cancers, including HCC. However, the role of these mtDNA alterations in cancer progression is unclear. In this review, we summarize the recent findings on the somatic mtDNA alterations identified in HCC and their relationships with the clinicopathological features of HCC. Recent advances in understanding the potential roles of somatic mtDNA alterations in the progression of HCC are also discussed. We suggest that somatic mtDNA mutations and a decrease in the mtDNA copy number are common events in HCC and that a mitochondrial dysfunction-activated signaling cascade may play an important role in the progression of HCC. Elucidation of the retrograde signaling pathways in HCC and the quest for strategies to block some of these pathways will be instrumental for the development of novel treatments for this and other malignancies.World Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2013; 19(47):8880-8886. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v19.i47.8880 · 2.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), known pharmaceutically as alprostadil, has vasodilatory properties and is used widely in various clinical settings. In addition to acute vasodilatory properties, PGE1 may exert beneficial effects by altering protein expression of vascular cells. PGE1 is reported to be a potent stimulator of angiogenesis via upregulation of VEGF expression, which is under the control of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). However, the molecular mechanisms behind the phenomenon are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which PGE1 induces HIF-1 activation and VEGF gene expression in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), both vascular-derived cells. HUVECs and HASMCs were treated with PGE1 at clinically relevant concentrations under 20% O2 conditions and HIF-1 protein expression was investigated. Expression of HIF- 1α protein and the HIF-1-downstream genes were low under 20% O2 conditions and increased in response to PGE1 treatment in both HUVECs and HASMCs in a dose- and time-dependent manner under 20% O2 conditions as comparable to exposure to 1% O2 conditions. Studies using EP-receptor-specific agonists and antagonists revealed that EP1 and EP3 are critical to PGE1-induced HIF-1 activation. In vitro vascular permeability assays using HUVECs indicated that PGE1 increased vascular permeability in HUVECs. Thus, we demonstrate that PGE1 induces HIF- 1α protein expression and HIF-1 activation under non-hypoxic conditions and also provide evidence that the activity of multiple signal transduction pathways downstream of EP1 and EP3 receptors is required for HIF-1 activation.11/2013; 1:e220. DOI:10.7717/peerj.220
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ABSTRACT: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid growth factor with multiple biological functions and has been shown to stimulate cancer cell secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and trigger angiogenesis. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a heterodimer consisting of HIF-1α and HIF-1β (also known as aromatic hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)) subunits, is an important regulator of angiogenesis in prostate cancer (PC) through the enhancement of VEGF-A expression. In this study, we first confirmed the ability of LPA to induce VEGF-A expression in PC-3 cells and then validated that LPA-induced VEGF-A expression was regulated by HIF-1α and ARNT through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation. Aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a receptor for dioxin-like compounds, functions as a transcription factor through dimerization with ARNT and was found to inhibit prostate carcinogenesis and vanadate-induced VEGF-A production. Since ARNT is a common dimerization partner of AHR and HIF-1α, we hypothesized that AHR might suppress LPA-induced VEGF-A expression in PC-3 cells by competing with HIF-1α for ARNT. Here we demonstrated that overexpression and ligand activation of AHR inhibited HIF-1-mediated VEGF-A induction by LPA treatment of PC-3 cells. In conclusion, our results suggested that AHR activation may inhibit LPA-induced VEGF-A expression in PC-3 cells by attenuating HIF-1α signaling, and subsequently, suppressing angiogenesis and metastasis of PC. These results suggested that AHR presents a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of PC metastasis.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 07/2013; 437(3). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.06.098 · 2.28 Impact Factor