Yamamoto Y, Hirose H, Saito I, et al. Correlation of the adipocyte-derived protein adiponectin with insulin resistance index and serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, independent of body mass index, in the Japanese population
Adiponectin, which is secreted specifically by adipose tissue, has been shown to act as an anti-atherosclerotic protein by direct effects on endothelial cells. Clinical studies have shown that adiponectin levels are lower in individuals with obesity, diabetes and coronary artery disease. The present study investigated relationships between serum adiponectin levels and body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, insulin resistance index, lipid profile, uric acid and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in a large number of Japanese subjects not taking any medication for metabolic disease and without severe illness (705 men and 262 women; age 30-65 years; BMI 22.5+/-2.9 kg/m(2)). The serum adiponectin concentration was measured by ELISA, without a protein-denaturing step. The insulin resistance index was assessed by homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). The serum concentration of adiponectin in women (13.5+/-7.9 microg/ml) was significantly higher than that in men (7.2+/-4.6 microg/ml). The serum adiponectin level was negatively correlated with BMI, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and uric acid, and positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. The correlations between serum adiponectin level and insulin, HOMA-IR, triacylglycerols, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and uric acid were significant even after adjustment for age, sex and BMI. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that HDL-cholesterol, sex, BMI and HOMA-IR were independently correlated with the serum adiponectin level (R(2)=0.377). These findings suggest that the serum adiponectin level is negatively correlated with HOMA-IR and positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol, independent of age, sex and BMI, in the Japanese population.
"skela , 2006 ) . On the other hand , the improvement of TNF - α may represent an increase in the production of adiponectin ( Liu et al . , 2015 ) . This is important because adiponectin is acknowl - edged to counteract atherosclerosis through direct effect on vascular endothelial cells , but also improving insulin resistance and lipid metabolism ( Yamamoto et al . , 2002 ) . However , 12 weeks of RSP seemed not to be enough to promote changes in other inflammatory markers ( Nassis et al . , 2005 ) ."
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of a recreational soccer program (RSP) upon body composition, heart rate variability (HRV), biochemical markers, cardio-respiratory fitness, and endothelial function in obese adolescents were investigated. A randomised controlled clinical trial was conducted with 30 adolescents aged 12–17 years and body mass index (BMI) >2 standard deviations of WHO reference values, which were assigned to RSP (n = 10, 2 girls) and obese control (n = 10, 4 girls) groups. The 12-week RSP included 60-min sessions performed 3 times/week. BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose, lipid profile, insulin, C-reactive protein, HRV, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2peak) were evaluated following standardised procedures. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and endothelial function by venous occlusion plethysmography. After intervention, RSP exhibited significant reductions in BMI (−0.7 ± 0.2 kg · m–2), waist circumference (−8.2 ± 1.4 cm), %body fat (−2.2 ± 0.4%), systolic blood pressure (−5.0 ± 2.3 mmHg), total cholesterol (−16.2 ± 5.8 mg · dL−1), triglycerides (−20.5 ± 12.9 mg · dL−1), C-reactive protein (−0.06 ± 0.01 mg · dL−1), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, −1.4 ± 0.6), and sympathetic activity (LF, −13.9 ± 6.6 un) vs. controls (P < 0.05). Significant increase was observed in parasympathetic activity (HF, 13.9 ± 6.6 un), VO2peak (7.9 ± 2.8 ml · kg−1 · min−1), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (11.0 ± 6.3 mg · dL−1) (P < 0.05). Vascular conductance (19.5 ± 8.1 ml · min−1 · 100 ml, P = 0.005) increased and vascular resistance (−5.9 ± 2.4 ml · min−1 · 100 ml, P = 0.041) decreased in RSP, but not in controls. A 12-week recreational soccer intervention was effective to improve biochemical, cardiovascular, and fitness health markers in obese adolescents.
Journal of Sports Sciences 08/2015; DOI:10.1080/02640414.2015.1064150 · 2.25 Impact Factor
"Its production is paradoxically decreased in obesity  . Numerous studies have documented that adiponectin exerts antidiabetic and vasculoprotective effects       . Amongst the different adiponectin isoforms, highmolecular weight adiponectin particularly protects against the development of diabetes  and CVD . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we examined the potential impact of adiponectin on carotid ultrasound determined atherosclerosis in 210 (119 black and 91 white) RA patients in mixed regression models. Total adiponectin concentrations were smaller in patients with compared to those without the metabolic syndrome (MetS) defined waist criterion (median (range) = 6.47 (1.23-34.54) versus 8.38 (0.82-85.30) ng/mL, P = 0.02, resp.); both total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin concentrations were larger in patients with compared to those without joint deformities (7.97 (0.82-85.30) and 3.51 (0.01-35.40) versus 5.36 (1.29-19.49) and 2.34 (0.01-19.49) ng/mL, P = 0.003 and 0.02, resp.). Total and HMW adiponectin concentrations were associated with carotid artery plaque in patients with MetS waist (odds ratio (95% CI) = 0.87 (0.76-0.99) and 0.92 (0.85-0.99) per 1-standard deviation increment, P = 0.02 for both) and those without joint deformities (odds ratio (95% CI) = 0.94 (0.88-0.99) and 0.94 (0.89-0.99), P = 0.03 for both). Plaque prevalence was lower in patients without compared to those with joint deformities (23.4% versus 42.6, P = 0.004 in multivariable analysis). In RA patients with abdominal obesity or no clinically evident joint damage, adiponectin concentrations are reduced but nevertheless associated with decreased carotid atherosclerosis.
Mediators of Inflammation 06/2014; 2014:358949. DOI:10.1155/2014/358949 · 3.24 Impact Factor
"These parameters, except HbA1c, were evaluated after glycemic control was achieved, because the patient's ‘basal’ state was presumed to be approximated after the correction of any glucotoxicity. In the present study, the log‐transformed KITT value correlated with various clinical parameters associated with obesity, including BMI, waist circumference and eVFA, which are parameters of body composition, as well as HDL‐C and adiponectin levels, which are parameters associated with obesity26. These results suggest that insulin resistance, assessed by KITT, is also associated with obesity in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes after insulin therapy. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims/IntroductionTo establish the validity of the plasma glucose disappearance rate (KITT), derived from an insulin-tolerance test (ITT), for evaluating the insulin sensitivity of patients with type 2 diabetes after insulin therapy.Materials and Methods
In the first arm of the study, 19 patients with poorly controlled diabetes were treated with insulin and underwent an ITT and a euglycemic clamp test (clamp-IR). The relationship between the insulin resistance index, as assessed by both the clamp-IR and KITT tests, was examined. In the second arm of the study, the relationships between KITT values and various clinical parameters were investigated in 135 patients with poorly controlled diabetes, after achieving glycemic control with insulin.ResultsIn study 1, a close correlation between KITT and the average glucose infusion rate during the last 30 min of the standard clamp-IR test (M-value) was noted (P < 0.001). In study 2, body mass index (P = 0.0011), waist circumference (P = 0.0004), visceral fat area (P = 0.0011) and the log-transformed homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance value (P = 0.0003) were negatively correlated with the log-transformed KITT. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.0183), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.0121) and adiponectin (P = 0.0384) levels were positively correlated with the log-transformed KITT.Conclusions
The ITT is a valid and useful test for evaluating the insulin sensitivity of patients with diabetes, even after treatment with insulin.
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