Correlation of the adipocyte-derived protein adiponectin with insulin resistance index and serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, independent of body mass index, in the Japanese population.
ABSTRACT Adiponectin, which is secreted specifically by adipose tissue, has been shown to act as an anti-atherosclerotic protein by direct effects on endothelial cells. Clinical studies have shown that adiponectin levels are lower in individuals with obesity, diabetes and coronary artery disease. The present study investigated relationships between serum adiponectin levels and body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, insulin resistance index, lipid profile, uric acid and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in a large number of Japanese subjects not taking any medication for metabolic disease and without severe illness (705 men and 262 women; age 30-65 years; BMI 22.5+/-2.9 kg/m(2)). The serum adiponectin concentration was measured by ELISA, without a protein-denaturing step. The insulin resistance index was assessed by homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). The serum concentration of adiponectin in women (13.5+/-7.9 microg/ml) was significantly higher than that in men (7.2+/-4.6 microg/ml). The serum adiponectin level was negatively correlated with BMI, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and uric acid, and positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. The correlations between serum adiponectin level and insulin, HOMA-IR, triacylglycerols, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and uric acid were significant even after adjustment for age, sex and BMI. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that HDL-cholesterol, sex, BMI and HOMA-IR were independently correlated with the serum adiponectin level (R(2)=0.377). These findings suggest that the serum adiponectin level is negatively correlated with HOMA-IR and positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol, independent of age, sex and BMI, in the Japanese population.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND We conducted this investigation in order to examine the anti-obesity and hypolipidaemic effects of Nelumbo nucifera seed ethanol extract (NSEE) in vitro and in vivo. METHODS To study the anti-obesity effect of NSEE in vitro and in vivo, human pre-adipocytes were treated with NSEE, and male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed with a normal diet and a high-fat diet with or without NSEE, respectively. RESULTSIn vitro treatment with NSEE resulted in inhibition of lipid accumulation and decreased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), and leptin in cultured human adipocytes, indicating that it inhibited the differentiation of pre-adipocytes into adipocytes. Administration of NSEE resulted in significantly reduced body weight gain and adipose tissue weights in rats. Serum triglyceride and leptin level of the high-fat diet + NSEE group was significantly lower, compared to the high-fat group. CONCLUSION These results demonstrate an inhibitory effect of NSEE on adipogenesis. In addition, NSEE had a beneficial effect, reducing adipose tissue weights, ameliorating blood lipid profile, and modulating serum leptin level in rats fed a high-fat diet. Therefore, we suggest that lotus seed has a potential to be developed as an effective agent against obesity-related diseases. © 2013 Society of Chemical IndustryJournal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 02/2014; 94(3). · 1.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study aims to find out the effects of peanut sprout extracts on weight controls and protein expressions of transcription factors related to adipocyte differentiation and adipocytokine in rats under high-fat diets. Four week-old Sparague-Dawley (SD) were assigned to 4 groups; normal-fat (NF) diets (7% fat diet), high-fat (HF) diets (20% fat diet), high fat diets with low peanut sprout extract (HF + PSEL) diet (20% fat and 0.025% peanut sprout extract), and high fat diets with high peanut sprout extract (HF + PSEH) diet (20% fat and 0.05% peanut sprout extract). Body weight changes, lipid profiles in adipose tissue, and the mRNA protein expressions, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT element binding protein α (C/EBP α), leptin, and adiponectin, were determined. After 9 weeks of feeding, the HF + PSEH group had significantly less weight gains than the HF group (P < 0.05). However, the total dietary intakes or food efficiency ratios among groups were not significantly different. The weight of epididymal fat in HF + PSEH group, 3.61 ± 0.5 g, or HF + PSEL group, 3.80 ± 0.7 g, was significantly lower than the HF group, 4.39 ± 0.4g, (P < 0.05). Total lipids and total cholesterol in adipose tissue were significantly decreased in HF + PSEH group compared to those in the HF group, respectively (P < 0.05). PSEH supplementation caused AST and ALT levels to decrease when it compared to HF group, but it was not statistically significant. The protein expression of PPARγ in HF + PSEH group was significantly lower than the HF group (P < 0.05). Comparing with the HF group, the protein expression of adiponectin in HF + PSEH group was significantly increased (P < 0.05). The protein expressions of C/EBP α and leptin in HF + PSEH group were lower than the HF group, but it was not statistical significant. In conclusion, peanut sprout extract has anti-obesity effect by lowering the expressions of PPARγ which regulates the expression of adiponectin.Nutrition research and practice 04/2014; 8(2):158-64. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aims/IntroductionTo establish the validity of the plasma glucose disappearance rate (KITT), derived from an insulin-tolerance test (ITT), for evaluating the insulin sensitivity of patients with type 2 diabetes after insulin therapy.Materials and Methods In the first arm of the study, 19 patients with poorly controlled diabetes were treated with insulin and underwent an ITT and a euglycemic clamp test (clamp-IR). The relationship between the insulin resistance index, as assessed by both the clamp-IR and KITT tests, was examined. In the second arm of the study, the relationships between KITT values and various clinical parameters were investigated in 135 patients with poorly controlled diabetes, after achieving glycemic control with insulin.ResultsIn study 1, a close correlation between KITT and the average glucose infusion rate during the last 30 min of the standard clamp-IR test (M-value) was noted (P < 0.001). In study 2, body mass index (P = 0.0011), waist circumference (P = 0.0004), visceral fat area (P = 0.0011) and the log-transformed homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance value (P = 0.0003) were negatively correlated with the log-transformed KITT. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.0183), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.0121) and adiponectin (P = 0.0384) levels were positively correlated with the log-transformed KITT.Conclusions The ITT is a valid and useful test for evaluating the insulin sensitivity of patients with diabetes, even after treatment with insulin.Journal of Diabetes Investigation. 05/2014; 5(3).