Correlation of the adipocyte-derived protein adiponectin with insulin resistance index and serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, independent of body mass index, in the Japanese population.
ABSTRACT Adiponectin, which is secreted specifically by adipose tissue, has been shown to act as an anti-atherosclerotic protein by direct effects on endothelial cells. Clinical studies have shown that adiponectin levels are lower in individuals with obesity, diabetes and coronary artery disease. The present study investigated relationships between serum adiponectin levels and body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, insulin resistance index, lipid profile, uric acid and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in a large number of Japanese subjects not taking any medication for metabolic disease and without severe illness (705 men and 262 women; age 30-65 years; BMI 22.5+/-2.9 kg/m(2)). The serum adiponectin concentration was measured by ELISA, without a protein-denaturing step. The insulin resistance index was assessed by homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). The serum concentration of adiponectin in women (13.5+/-7.9 microg/ml) was significantly higher than that in men (7.2+/-4.6 microg/ml). The serum adiponectin level was negatively correlated with BMI, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and uric acid, and positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. The correlations between serum adiponectin level and insulin, HOMA-IR, triacylglycerols, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and uric acid were significant even after adjustment for age, sex and BMI. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that HDL-cholesterol, sex, BMI and HOMA-IR were independently correlated with the serum adiponectin level (R(2)=0.377). These findings suggest that the serum adiponectin level is negatively correlated with HOMA-IR and positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol, independent of age, sex and BMI, in the Japanese population.
SourceAvailable from: Kakali Ghoshal[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes is an emerging health challenge all over the world as a result of urbanization, high prevalence of obesity, sedentary lifestyle and other stress related factors compounded with the genetic prevalence. The health consequences and economic burden of the obesity and related diabetes mellitus epidemic are enormous. Different signaling molecules secreted by adipocytes have been implicated in the development of obesity and associated insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Human adiponectin, a 244-amino acid collagen-like protein is solely secreted by adipocytes and acts as a hormone with anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties. Adiponectin secretion, in contrast to secretion of other adipokines, is paradoxically decreased in obesity which may be attributable to inhibition of adiponectin gene transcription. There are several mechanisms through which adiponectin may decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes, including suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis, stimulation of fatty acid oxidation in the liver, stimulation of fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, and stimulation of insulin secretion. To date, no systematic review has been conducted that evaluate the potential importance of adiponectin metabolism in insulin resistance. In this review attempt has been made to explore the relevance of adiponectin metabolism for the development of diabetes mellitus. This article also identifies this novel target for prospective therapeutic research aiming successful management of diabetes mellitus.02/2015; 6(1):151-166. DOI:10.4239/wjd.v6.i1.151
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ABSTRACT: Statins represent the elective lipid-lowering strategy in hyperlipidemic and high cardiovascular-risk patients. Despite excellent safety and tolerability, reversible muscle-related and dose-dependent adverse events may decrease a patient's compliance. Large meta-analyses, post-hoc and genetic studies showed that statins might increase the risk of new-onset diabetes (NOD), particularly in insulin-resistant, obese, old patients. Race, gender, concomitant medication, dose and treatment duration may also contribute to this effect. Based on this evidence, to warn against the possibility of statin-induced NOD or worsening glycemic control in patients with already established diabetes, FDA and EMA changed the labels of all the available statins in the USA and Europe. Recent meta-analyses and retrospective studies demonstrated that statins' diabetogenicity is a dose-related class effect, but the mechanism(s) is not understood. Among statins, only pravastatin and pitavastatin do not deteriorate glycemic parameters in patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Interestingly, available data, obtained in small-scale, retrospective or single-center clinical studies, document that pitavastatin, while ameliorating lipid profile, seems protective against NOD. Beyond differences in pharmacokinetics between pitavastatin and the other statins (higher oral bioavailability, lower hepatic uptake), its consistent increases in plasma adiponectin documented in clinical studies may be causally connected with its effect on glucose metabolism. Adiponectin is a protein with antiatherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetogenic properties exerted on liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and pancreatic beta cells. Further studies are required to confirm this unique property of pitavastatin and to understand the mechanism(s) leading to this effect.Atherosclerosis Supplements 01/2015; 16. DOI:10.1016/S1567-5688(14)70002-9 · 9.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Key words: adiponectin, type 2 diabetes, prediabetic states, central obesity Objectives. To evaluate adiponectin level in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism (pre-diabetes or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes) and to compare it with adiponectin levels in obese and non-obese healthy subjects. We also aimed to evaluate associations of adiponectin level with demographic data, anthropometric measures, indices of insulin resistance and glucose metabolism and compare these associations in healthy subjects and patients with impaired glucose metabolism. Materials and methods. � e study included 33 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects, 48 individuals with impaired glucose tolerance and / or impaired fasting glucose and 68 healthy subjects. Healthy subjects were divided into obese and non-obese subgroups. � e evaluation involved a full medical history and physical examination, including anthropometric measurements: height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, skin folds thickness and adipose tissue mass measured by bioelectric impedance device (OMRON BF 302). Blood samples were also analysed for plasma glucose, insulin, HbA1C, uric acid, blood lipids, leptin and adiponectin levels. Results. Adiponectin level was not diff erent in subjects with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes as compared with the subjects with prediabetic conditions (9,23±5,61 vs. 11,2±9,72, p=0,858) whereas adiponectin levels in obese healthy individuals were statistically signifi cantly higher (15,62±10,38 μg/ml, p=0,014). Healthy non-obese subjects had signifi cantly higher adiponectin blood levels (19,62±12,20 μg/ml) as compared with individuals with type 2 diabetes and prediabetes, but comparisson of adiponectin levels in healthy non-obese and obese subjects failed to show statistically signifi cant diff erence. Statistically signifi cant inverse corelations of adiponectin levels with BMI and insulin resistance indices were observed in healthy subjects, but not in patients with type 2 diabetes or prediabetic conditions. Adiponectin showed the strongest inverse correlation with waist to hip ratio both in healthy and impaired glucose metabolism study populations (rs=-0,491 and rs=-0,407). Waist to hip ratio was the only independent variable in the multiple linear regression models, explaining 33 % and 21 % of adiponectin blood level variability in healthy subjects and individuals with impaired glucose metabolism. Conclusions. Alterations of adiponectin secretion can be involved in the development of glucose metabolism impairment. Adiponectin levels are associated with indices of central obesity rather than with measures of general obesity. In healthy subjects adiponectin is more closely associated with indices of insulin resistance and central obesity as compared with individuals with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes.