Recent discoveries in inclusive food-based approaches and dietary patterns for reduction in risk for cardiovascular disease
ABSTRACT To discuss new evidence-based dietary recommendations founded on an inclusive food strategy and to address the challenges that are posed by integrating a growing list of heart healthy foods into the diet without increasing energy intake beyond that required to achieve a healthy body weight.
New food-based dietary recommendations issued by the American Heart Association with the objective of reducing risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) promote an inclusionary approach. The American Heart Association recommends a variety of foods to target four major goals: achieve a healthy overall diet, achieve a healthy weight, promote desirable lipid levels, and promote desirable blood pressure. Specific foods recommended include fruits and vegetables, grain products (including whole grains), fish, lean meat and poultry, fat-free or low-fat dairy products, and legumes. In addition, the new National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III recommends reductions in saturated fat and cholesterol and therapeutic dietary options for enhancing LDL-cholesterol lowering, with inclusion of plant stanols/sterols (2 g/day) and increased viscous (soluble) fiber (10-25 g/day). In parallel with the evolution of new dietary recommendations is the expanding list of specific foods that have cardioprotective effects. Additional foods on this list are nuts, soy, legumes, alcohol, tea, and garlic.
It will be challenging to include all foods that reduce CVD risk in the diet and still maintain energy control. Strategies are needed that facilitate developing heart healthy dietary patterns that maximally reduce CVD risk.
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ABSTRACT: This is a up-to-date, comprehensive review of natural product-based dietary interventions for type 2 diabetes.EndoText.org: Carbohydrate metabolism and diabetes mellitus, online textbook edited by Kathleen Dungan, 03/2014: chapter 16: pages 1-13; EndoText.org., ISBN: URL: http://www.endotext.org/chapter/modalities-for-treatment-of-diabetes/non-pharamaceutical-intervention-options-for-type2-diabetes/#toc-introduction
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ABSTRACT: Low B vitamin status is linked with human vascular disease. We employed a proteomic and biochemical approach to determine whether nutritional folate deficiency and/or hyperhomocysteinemia altered metabolic processes linked with atherosclerosis in ApoE null mice. Animals were fed either a control fat (C; 4 % w/w lard) or a high-fat [HF; 21 % w/w lard and cholesterol (0/15 % w/w)] diet with different B vitamin compositions for 16 weeks. Aorta tissue was prepared and global protein expression, B vitamin, homocysteine and lipoprotein status measured. Changes in the expression of aorta proteins were detected in response to multiple B vitamin deficiency combined with a high-fat diet (P P ApoE null mice. Deregulated expression of these proteins is associated with human atherosclerosis. Cellular pathways altered by B vitamin status included cytoskeletal organisation, cell differentiation and migration, oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. These findings provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms through which B vitamin deficiency may accelerate atherosclerosis.Genes & Nutrition 12/2014; 10(1). DOI:10.1007/s12263-014-0446-y · 3.42 Impact Factor