Polymorphonuclear neutrophil and megakaryocyte mutual involvement in myelofibrosis pathogenesis
ABSTRACT The study presented here, performed on the bone marrow from patients with idiopathic myelofibrosis (MF) and on a murine model of MF, demonstrates a pathological interaction between PMN leukocytes and megakaryocyte (Mk), correlated with MF development. The data obtained revealed abnormal subcellular P-selectin distribution, which appeared to correlate with excessive and pathological emperipolesis of PMN leukocytes within Mk, leading to the destruction of Mk storage organelles and leakage of alpha-granular contents into the bone marrow microenvironment. The prominent role of growth factors, PDGF and TGFbeta, stored in the Mk alpha-granular compartment in the generation of MF has been previously largely documented. Both growth factors are essential for the Mk-dependent fibroblast proliferation. The destructive mutual cellular interaction of Mk and PMN leading to the pathological release of PDGF and TGFbeta within the bone marrow microenvironment may participate, through fibroblast activation, to the generation of MF. Therefore, this study provides insight into the possible pathophysiological mechanisms for the genesis of MF.
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ABSTRACT: Essential thrombocythaemia was first described over 70 years ago. This condition is dominated by thrombotic and haemorrhagic complications and, in the long-term, by risk of transformation to myelofibrosis and/or acute leukaemia. However, it is heterogeneous both clinically and biologically. Here, a review of current concepts in disease aetiology and management is offered with reference to recent focused reviews where appropriate. In addition, five specific areas are discussed in detail: the role of the trephine biopsy, the disease entity prefibrotic myelofibrosis; the recently described Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) mutations; the leukaemogenicity of hydroxyurea (hydroxycarbamide); and lastly, the implications of the results of the Medical Research Council Primary Thrombocythaemia 1 study are explored.British Journal of Haematology 08/2005; 130(2):153-65. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2005.05543.x · 4.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: MMM is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder characterized by bone marrow fibrosis and neoangiogenesis, constitutive release ofa high number of CD34+ stem cells from the bone marrow, and extramedullary hematopoiesis. It presents with heterogeneous clinical features in which anemia and progression to symptomatic splenomegaly dominate. The pathogenesis is undefined, but the dual action of deregulation of the bFGF pathway may influence myeloproliferation, myelofibrosis, and neoangiogenesis. Animal models suggest that chronic exposure to high doses of thrombopoietin or impairment of the capacity of megakaryocytes to differentiate into platelets, as occurs in the GATA-1(low) mice, is a necessary event for myelofibrosis. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation offers a chance of cure, and low conditioning regimens may extend the age of transplantable patients with lower mortality. Autologus stem cell transplantation and splenectomy are risky procedures that may be considered in patients with advanced disease when conventional therapies for correcting anemia (danazol, recombinant human erythropoietin, or cyclosporine) or chemotherapy for splenomegaly and myeloproliferation (hydroxyurea or interferon alfa) have failed. Thalidomide has been tested in numerous series, and its capacity to improve anemia and thrombocytopenia while reducing splenomegaly has been documented.Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America 11/2003; 17(5):1211-26. DOI:10.1016/S0889-8588(03)00080-7 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Myeloid metaplasia with myelofibrosis (MMM) is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder (CMPD) characterized by progressive anemia, massive splenomegaly, both hepatosplenic and non-hepatosplenic extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH), a leukoerythroblastic blood smear, circulating progenitor cells, and marked bone marrow stromal reaction including collagen fibrosis, osteosclerosis and angiogenesis. The overall median survival is 5 years although it might range from 2 to 15 years depending on the presence or absence of clinically defined prognostic factors. Death is often due to leukemic transformation, portal hypertension or infection. In addition to shortened survival, quality of life is often affected by frequent red blood cell transfusions, profound constitutional symptoms, and cachexia. Drug therapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are of only palliative value and have not been shown to improve survival. The role of allogeneic HSCT, both myeloablative and non-myeloablative, is actively being investigated. Both splenectomy and radiation therapy have defined therapeutic roles to control EMH-associated symptoms. Analysis of the molecular biology of the disease is underway with the aid of animal models leading to the identification of novel therapeutic targets. Among the novel agents tested, thalidomide seems the most promising although newer agents are on the horizon.Internal Medicine 08/2004; 43(7):540-7. DOI:10.2169/internalmedicine.43.540 · 0.97 Impact Factor