Ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: a new phenotype classification system and its relation to prognosis.

Department of Surgery, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment (Impact Factor: 4.47). 07/2002; 73(3):215-21. DOI: 10.1023/A:1015816406078
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In a study of invasive breast cancer, multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) revealed clustering of eight pathobiological variables. Two different phenotypes were distinguished by an index calculated on the basis of the variables (histologic grade, necrosis, lymphoid infiltration, number of mitosis and expression of c-erbB-2, p53, progesterone receptor and Bcl-2). Phenotype A lesions share most of the features of normal breast tissue. Phenotype B looks more malignant, has a higher early recurrence rate and is more frequently seen in younger patients. Our aim was to see if ductal breast carcinoma in situ (DCIS) could be divided into the same phenotypes. One hundred and eighty DCIS were investigated. Association between the eight variables was studied in 2 x 2 models. The phenotype index was calculated by summing weights for the variables in the MCA. All variables were associated, except Bcl-2. DCIS was divided in two phenotypes. Thirty-three tumours were Phenotype A and 147 Phenotype B. The mean age at diagnosis was 65.5 and 58.4 years for Phenotypes A and B, respectively (p = 0.0012). No difference regarding local relapse free survival was seen. Two phenotypes were distinguished in DCIS, similar to invasive breast cancer. In an earlier study, 45% of the invasive cancers were classified as Phenotype B. In this study, 82% of DCIS were Phenotype B. This may indicate that invasive breast cancer of Phenotype B is derived from DCIS of Phenotype B. The distribution of DCIS phenotypes with a small proportion of Phenotype A DCIS may be due to that Phenotype A DCIS is less likely to be detected by mammography, or that some invasive breast cancers of Phenotype A progress to invasiveness without passing the in situ phase.

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    ABSTRACT: Nuclear grade has been associated with breast DCIS recurrence and progression to invasive carcinoma; however, our previous study of a cohort of patients with breast DCIS did not find such an association with outcome. Fifty percent of patients had heterogeneous DCIS with more than one nuclear grade. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of quantitative nuclear features assessed with digital image analysis on ipsilateral DCIS recurrence. Hematoxylin and eosin stained slides for a cohort of 80 patients with primary breast DCIS were reviewed and two fields with representative grade (or grades) were identified by a Pathologist and simultaneously used for acquisition of digital images for each field. Van Nuys worst nuclear grade was assigned, as was predominant grade, and heterogeneous grading when present. Patients were grouped by heterogeneity of their nuclear grade: Group A: nuclear grade 1 only, nuclear grades 1 and 2, or nuclear grade 2 only (32 patients), Group B: nuclear grades 1, 2 and 3, or nuclear grades 2 and 3 (31 patients), Group 3: nuclear grade 3 only (17 patients). Nuclear fine structure was assessed by software which captured thirty-nine nuclear feature values describing nuclear morphometry, densitometry, and texture. Step-wise forward Cox regressions were performed with previous clinical and pathologic factors, and the new image analysis features. Duplicate measurements were similar for 89.7% to 97.4% of assessed image features. The rate of correct classification of nuclear grading with digital image analysis features was similar in the two fields, and pooled assessment across both fields. In the pooled assessment, a discriminant function with one nuclear morphometric and one texture feature was significantly (p = 0.001) associated with nuclear grading, and provided correct jackknifed classification of a patient's nuclear grade for Group A (78.1%), Group B (48.4%), and Group C (70.6%). The factors significantly associated with DCIS recurrence were those previously found, type of initial presentation (p = 0.03) and amount of parenchymal involvement (p = 0.05), along with the morphometry image feature of ellipticity (p = 0.04). Analysis of nuclear features measured by image cytometry may contribute to the classification and prognosis of breast DCIS patients with more than one nuclear grade.
    Cancer informatics 02/2008; 6:99-109.
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    ABSTRACT: Systematic synthesis of the published evidence about incidence, risk factors, and management options for women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast. Original epidemiologic studies were sought from several databases to identity articles published in English between 1970 and January 31, 2009. Incidence of DCIS in the general population and among women at greater risk of breast cancer and patient outcomes after diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) were abstracted into the developed standardized form. Patient outcomes after breast conserving surgery with or without adjuvant radio- or chemotherapy or after mastectomy were compared from randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) and observational studies. Three hundred seventy-four publications were eligible for the review. Rarely diagnosed before 1980, the incidence of DCIS increased by 270 percent since 1987 to 37.5 per 100,000 women in 2001, partially due to increased use of mammography with no good evidence of overdiagnosis (63 publications). Incidence was higher with increasing age, breast density, and family history and lower among physically active women and aspirin users (29 publications). Tamoxifen did not prevent DCIS at longer followup in women at high risk of breast cancer (two RCTs). No good evidence was identified around the optimal use of MRI for treatment planning (64 publications). Case-series from academic centers reported that around 5 percent of women with final histological diagnosis of DCIS had positive sentinel nodes and 1 percent were upgraded to metastatic cancer with no significant differences in outcomes (50 publications). Good evidence from five RCTs (ten publications) suggested that breast conserving surgery with adjuvant radiation reduced ipsilateral (the same breast) tumors by 53 percent with no differences in mortality or contralateral (the second breast) cancer. One RCT demonstrated that adjuvant chemotherapy reduced ipsilateral and contralateral cancer. Ten-year post diagnostic survival was more than 98 percent, while the rates of ipsilateral cancer were around 10 percent (133 publications of 64 observational studies). Major risk factors for ipsilateral cancer were younger age, larger tumor size, comedo necrosis, and positive surgical margins. Limited evidence of worse incidence and advanced outcomes in racial subgroups varied across the studies. Inconsistent evidence suggested that Her2 receptor and negative estrogen receptor status were associated with worse outcomes. No good evidence was found that adjuvant chemotherapy or mastectomy can improve outcomes and there was no evidence on natural history of DCIS or on quality of life among women treated for DCIS. Incidence of DCIS continued to increase with no evidence of overdiagnosis or effective preventive strategies. There is a need to better identify problematic lesions from mammography that are most likely to contain some invasive breast cancer. Most prognostic factors for invasive breast cancer are also prognostic factors for DCIS. The role of MRI and SLNB should be investigated as tools to improve pre-surgical decisonmaking and staging. Breast conserving surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy can benefit all women, though the absolute impact may be small for some women. Ongoing trials will shed light on the optimal clinical strategy for treating DCIS.
    Evidence report/technology assessment 09/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: Nuclear grade of breast DCIS is considered during patient management decision-making although it may have only a modest prognostic association with therapeutic outcome. We hypothesized that visual inspection may miss substantive differences in nuclei classified as having the same nuclear grade. To test this hypothesis, we measured subvisual nuclear features by quantitative image cytometry for nuclei with the same grade, and tested for statistical differences in these features. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Thirty-nine nuclear digital image features of about 100 nuclei were measured in digital images of H&E stained slides of 81 breast biopsy specimens. One field with at least 5 ducts was evaluated for each patient. We compared features of nuclei with the same grade in multiple ducts of the same patient with ANOVA (or Welch test), and compared features of nuclei with the same grade in two ducts of different patients using 2-sided t-tests (P ≤ 0.05). Also, we compared image features for nuclei in patients with single grade to those with the same grade in patients with multiple grades using t-tests. Statistically significant differences were detected in nuclear features between ducts with the same nuclear grade, both in different ducts of the same patient, and between ducts in different patients with DCIS of more than one grade. Nuclei in ducts visually described as having the same nuclear grade had significantly different subvisual digital image features. These subvisual differences may be considered additional manifestations of heterogeneity over and above differences that can be observed microscopically. This heterogeneity may explain the inconsistency of nuclear grading as a prognostic factor.
    Cancer informatics 01/2010; 9:209-16.