Ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: a new phenotype classification system and its relation to prognosis.

Department of Surgery, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment (Impact Factor: 4.2). 07/2002; 73(3):215-21. DOI: 10.1023/A:1015816406078
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In a study of invasive breast cancer, multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) revealed clustering of eight pathobiological variables. Two different phenotypes were distinguished by an index calculated on the basis of the variables (histologic grade, necrosis, lymphoid infiltration, number of mitosis and expression of c-erbB-2, p53, progesterone receptor and Bcl-2). Phenotype A lesions share most of the features of normal breast tissue. Phenotype B looks more malignant, has a higher early recurrence rate and is more frequently seen in younger patients. Our aim was to see if ductal breast carcinoma in situ (DCIS) could be divided into the same phenotypes. One hundred and eighty DCIS were investigated. Association between the eight variables was studied in 2 x 2 models. The phenotype index was calculated by summing weights for the variables in the MCA. All variables were associated, except Bcl-2. DCIS was divided in two phenotypes. Thirty-three tumours were Phenotype A and 147 Phenotype B. The mean age at diagnosis was 65.5 and 58.4 years for Phenotypes A and B, respectively (p = 0.0012). No difference regarding local relapse free survival was seen. Two phenotypes were distinguished in DCIS, similar to invasive breast cancer. In an earlier study, 45% of the invasive cancers were classified as Phenotype B. In this study, 82% of DCIS were Phenotype B. This may indicate that invasive breast cancer of Phenotype B is derived from DCIS of Phenotype B. The distribution of DCIS phenotypes with a small proportion of Phenotype A DCIS may be due to that Phenotype A DCIS is less likely to be detected by mammography, or that some invasive breast cancers of Phenotype A progress to invasiveness without passing the in situ phase.

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    ABSTRACT: Tumor grade, size and margin status are the most significant factors in predicting the behavior of ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS). The inclusion of necrosis and nuclear grade in the grading of DCIS has demonstrated a fair but suboptimal agreement between pathologists. The grading of DCIS was studied and compared to the Van Nuys (VN) system, by using our newly proposed unifying "nuclear grade + proliferation index (N+P) grading system for invasive carcinomas. 162 DCIS tumors were studied including 49 VN I, 31 VN II, and 82 VN III cases. The VN and N+P systems were compared with each other and correlated with tumor size, ER, PR, p53, Her-2, EGFR, Bcl-2, p27 and p21 status. The two systems demonstrated similar frequencies for the different grades and an agreement with each other for all of the biomarkers studied. The greatest difference between the two systems was observed for those tumors initially classified as VN II (94% being down-graded to N+P I) and VN III (80% being down-graded to N+P II). These results suggest that the N+P system, combining nuclear grade with automated MIB-1 count, is a potentially valid and reproducible grading system for both non-invasive and invasive mammary carcinomas. It is automated, less subjective in assessing mitotic activity and necrosis and correlates with other prognostic biomarkers.
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