Low expression of interferon-stimulated genes in active multiple sclerosis is linked to subnormal phosphorylation of STAT1.
ABSTRACT Multiple sclerosis is an immune-mediated brain disease ameliorated by interferon-beta therapy. Immune responses to IFN-alpha and IFN-beta are sometimes subnormal in MS peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNCs), suggesting an underlying defect in type I IFN signaling. We studied IFN-beta regulation of mRNA and protein induction for IFN regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) and IRF-2, which control multiple IFN-stimulated genes, and for 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (2',5'-OAS) and MxA, which are antiviral proteins. First, mRNA levels in resting MNC from untreated patients with clinically active MS contained IRF-1 at 38% of normal controls, 45% for IRF-2, 44% for 2',5'-OAS (all p<0.005), and 46% for MxA protein (p<0.007). Stable MS patients had intermediate levels of 2',5'-OAS and MxA. IFN-beta-1b therapy increased IRF-1, IRF-2, and 2',5'-OAS mRNA in resting MNC-but only up to levels seen in unstimulated control cells. In untreated patients with active MS, serine phosphorylation of the STAT1 transcription factor was markedly reduced, suggesting a mechanism for the low levels of IFN-induced genes. Secondly, in untreated patients with stable MS, culture with IFN-beta induced excessive tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1, and this correlated with low SHP1 tyrosine phosphatase levels. Excessive P-Tyr-STAT1 responses could induce inflammatory cytokines and demyelination in MS, as in motheaten mice, which have defects in SHP-1 function. Abnormal IFN signaling may predict the course of MS and responses to therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and IFN-gamma regulate gene expression by tyrosine phosphorylation of several transcription factors that have the 91-kilodalton (p91) protein of interferon-stimulated gene factor-3 (ISGF-3) as a common component. Interferon-activated protein complexes bind enhancers present in the promoters of early response genes such as the high-affinity Fc gamma receptor gene (Fc gamma RI). Treatment of human peripheral blood monocytes or basophils with interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-5, IL-10, or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) activated DNA binding proteins that recognized the IFN-gamma response region (GRR) located in the promoter of the Fc gamma RI gene. Although tyrosine phosphorylation was required for the assembly of each of these GRR binding complexes, only those formed as a result of treatment with IFN-gamma or IL-10 contained p91. Instead, complexes activated by IL-3 or GM-CSF contained a tyrosine-phosphorylated protein of 80 kilodaltons. Induction of Fc gamma RI RNA occurred only with IFN-gamma and IL-10, whereas pretreatment of cells with GM-CSF or IL-3 inhibited IFN-gamma induction of Fc gamma RI RNA. Thus, several cytokines other than interferons can activate putative transcription factors by tyrosine phosphorylation.Science 10/1993; 261(5129):1730-3. · 31.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Seventeen relapsing-remitting (R/R) multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and age/sex matched controls were studied every 6 weeks for 2 years. Disease activity, determined both clinically and by serial MRI, was correlated with natural killer (NK) cell functional activity (FA) and phenotype. Mean NK cell FA is significantly lower in MS patients, compared to controls (P < 0.001), while variability around the means is significantly greater (P < 0.01). The spectrum of mean NK cell FA, observed in the patient cohort, along with cyclical nature of the FA and phenotype over time, observed in both patients and controls, may begin to explain the discrepant results reported in previous studies. In R/R MS, there is a significant correlation between reductions (valleys) in NK cell FA and the development of active lesions on MRI, new (P < 0.001) or enlarging (P = 0.05). More importantly, a significant number of active lesions, new (P = 0.01) and enlarging (P = 0.02), are preceded by a reduction in NK cell FA. The correlation between the onset of clinical attacks and valleys of NK cell FA is also significant (P = 0.002). When taken together, the results suggest that reductions (valleys) in NK cell FA represent periods of susceptibility for the development of active lesions on MRI and clinical attacks. A significant positive correlation is also identified between mean NK cell FA for each R/R MS patient and total number of active MRI lesions developed by that patient over the 2 years (P = 0.001). The results would suggest that R/R MS patients with a higher mean NK cell FA are at greater risk for the development of active lesions. These results support the proposal that NK cells may play a role in the immunopathogenesis of R/R MS.Journal of Neuroimmunology 06/1998; 86(2):123-33. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Complete activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) requires phosphorylation at both Y701 and a conserved PMS727P sequence. S727 phosphorylation of STAT1 in interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-treated mouse fibroblasts occurred without a need for p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 or c-Jun kinases, and required both an intact SH2 domain and phosphorylation of Y701. In contrast, UV irradiation-induced STAT1 phosphorylation on S727 required p38MAPK, but no SH2 domain– phosphotyrosine interactions. Mutation of S727 differentially affected IFN-γ target genes, at the level of both basal and induced expression. Particularly strong effects were noted for the GBP1 and TAP1 genes. The PMS727P motif of STAT3 was phosphorylated by stimuli and signaling pathways different from those for STAT1 S727. Transfer of the STAT3 C-terminus to STAT1 changed the stimulus and pathway specificity of STAT1 S727 phosphorylation to that of STAT3. Our data suggest that STAT C-termini contribute to the specificity of cellular responses by linking individual STATs to different serine kinase pathways and through an intrinsically different requirement for serine phosphorylation at different target gene promoters.The EMBO Journal 02/2001; · 9.82 Impact Factor