Article

Lifestyle and other risk factors for thyroid cancer in Los Angeles County females.

University of Southern California, Department of Preventive Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA.
Annals of Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 2.48). 08/2002; 12(6):395-401. DOI: 10.1016/S1047-2797(01)00281-2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We conducted a population-based case-control study of thyroid cancer. Cases were 292 women, aged 15-54 when diagnosed between the years 1980 and 1983 (145 diagnosed in 1980-81 and 147 diagnosed in 1982-83). Female neighborhood controls (n = 292) were matched to each case on birth-year and race.
Among women < 35 years, thyroid disease in first-degree relatives increased thyroid cancer risk [odds ratio (OR) = 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-3.7]. Risk was not associated with fish consumption, although high childhood consumption of shellfish decreased thyroid cancer risk (OR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.05-0.7 for consumption at least a few times weekly). Among papillary thyroid cancers (82% of cases), frequent adult consumption of saltwater fish decreased risk. Cancer risk was reduced with consumption of certain vegetables, wine, and tea. Other dietary variables, including milk, beer and hard liquor, and coffee were not related to thyroid cancer risk. Among the papillary sample, risk increased with longer use of multivitamins (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.2-7.4 for > 10 years of use). Smoking and body mass were not associated with thyroid cancer risk.
These results suggest a role of family history of thyroid disease and certain dietary variables in the etiology of thyroid cancer in adult females.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
55 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To formally study age of diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and evaluate the prevalence of PTC in IBD patients compared to a control population. We were interested in testing the hypothesis that patients with IBD are more likely to be diagnosed with PTC than a control population. A retrospective cohort analysis was performed using the University of Pennsylvania Health System's electronic database. Outpatients from 1998-2009 were included in the search, and patients in the cohort were selected based on ICD-9 codes. Inclusion criteria included the diagnosis of Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) and the concurrent diagnosis of thyroid cancer in comparison to a control population. Using these methods 912 patients with CD and 1774 with UC were compared to 1638 diverticulitis and 19 447 asthma controls. Statistics were performed using corrected chi-square analysis. The primary outcome for this study was the diagnosis of PTC. Approval to conduct this study was obtained by the Institutional Review Board at the University of Pennsylvania. The mean age was 47.5 years (range: 18-102 years) and 66% patients were female. An analysis of variance model was used to compare the age of PTC diagnosis between the CD, UC, asthma and diverticulitis groups, and a statistically significant difference in age at PTC diagnosis was noted across all groups ( = 6.35, df = 3, = 0.0006). The age of PTC diagnosis in CD patients was statistically significantly lower than UC, asthma, and diverticulitis patients (average PTC diagnosis age for CD 25, UC 49, asthma 45, diverticulitis 63). After covarying for sex and age in 2009, the difference in age at PTC diagnosis remained statistically significant ( = 4.13, df = 3, = 0.0089). A total of 86 patients were diagnosed with PTC. Nine patients (0.5%) with UC were diagnosed with PTC. Patients with UC were not shown to be more likely to develop PTC [odds ratio (OR): 1.544, 95%CI 0.767-3.108] compared to asthma controls. Four patients (0.4%) with CD were diagnosed with PTC. Patients with CD were not shown to be more likely to develop PTC (OR: 1.334, 95%CI 0.485-3.672) compared to a control population with asthma. Nine patients (0.5%) with a history of diverticulitis were diagnosed with PTC. Patients with diverticulitis were not shown to be more likely to develop PTC (OR: 1.673, 95%CI 0.831-3.368) compared to asthma controls. Patients with CD or UC were not less likely to develop PTC compared to those with diverticulitis (CD OR: 0.80, 95%CI 0.25-2.60; UC OR: 0.92, 95%CI 0.37-2.33). None of the patients used immunosuppressant medications prior to the diagnosis of PTC (azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, and methotrexate). There is a significant difference in age of diagnosis of PTC in patients with CD compared to patients with UC and the control populations studied.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2013; 19(7):1079-84. · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The incidence of thyroid cancer has been rising over the past few decades along with a parallel increase in obesity. Observational studies have provided evidence for a potential association between the two. By contrast, clinical data for a link between type 2 diabetes mellitus, a condition strongly associated with obesity, and thyroid cancer are limited and largely not supportive of such an association. Obesity leads to hypoadiponectinemia, a pro-inflammatory state, and insulin resistance, which, in turn, leads to high circulating insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels, thereby possibly increasing the risk for thyroid cancer. Thus, insulin resistance possibly plays a pivotal role in underlying the observed association between obesity and thyroid cancer, potentially leading to the development and/or progression of thyroid cancer, through its interconnections with other factors including insulin-like growth factor-1, adipocytokines/cytokines and thyroid-stimulating hormone. In this review, epidemiological and clinical evidence and potential mechanisms underlying the proposed association between obesity and thyroid cancer risk are reviewed. If the association between obesity and thyroid cancer demonstrated in observational studies proves to be causal, targeting obesity (and/or downstream mediators of risk) could be of importance in the prevention and management of thyroid cancer.
    Obesity Reviews 08/2013; · 6.87 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective To investigate trends in incidence of differentiated thyroid carcinomas among children and adolescents and young adults. Study design In this ecological time-trends study, we selected cases of differentiated thyroid carcinomas (1984-2010) in patients <30 years from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 9 cancer registries by using International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, 3rd edition, codes for papillary and follicular cancers. Patients with multiple other primary diseases before differentiated thyroid carcinomas were excluded. SEER*Stat software, version 8.0.4 (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland) was used to calculate age-standardized rates (estimated per 1 000 000/persons) and annual percentage changes (APCs) were calculated by the Joinpoint model (Joinpoint software, version 4.0.4; National Cancer Institute). Results Rates ranged from 2.77 (1990) to 9.63 (2009) and from 18.35 (1987) to 50.99 (2009), for male and female subjects, respectively. A significant increasing trend in incidence was observed for both male (APC 3.44; 95% CI 2.60-4.28) and female (APC 3.81; 95% CI 3.38-4.24) patients. When a stratified analysis on the basis of tumor size was performed, significant increasing trends were noted for the following categories: <0.5 cm (females: APC 5.09, 95% CI 3.54-6.65), 0.5-0.9 cm (females: APC 8.45, 95% CI 7.09-9.82), 1.0-1.9 cm (males: APC 5.09, 95% CI 3.20-7.01; females: APC 3.42, 95% CI 2.78-4.07), and ≥2 cm (males: APC 2.62, 95% CI 1.64-3.60; females: APC 2.96, 95% CI 2.34-3.59). Conclusions Incidence rates for differentiated thyroid carcinomas are increasing among children and adolescents and young adults in the US. The increasing trends for larger tumors rules out diagnostic scrutiny as the only explanation for the observed results. Environmental, dietary, and genetic influences should be investigated.
    The Journal of pediatrics 01/2014; · 4.02 Impact Factor

Full-text (3 Sources)

View
8 Downloads
Available from
May 31, 2014