Effect of strength and speed of torque development on balance recovery with the ankle strategy.
ABSTRACT In the event of an unexpected disturbance to balance, the ability to recover a stable upright stance should depend not only on the magnitude of torque that can be generated by contraction of muscles spanning the lower extremity joints but also on how quickly these torques can be developed. In the present study, we used a combination of experimental and mathematical models of balance recovery by sway (feet in place responses) to test this hypothesis. Twenty-three young subjects participated in experiments in which they were supported in an inclined standing position by a horizontal tether and instructed to recover balance by contracting only their ankle muscles. The maximum lean angle where they could recover balance without release of the tether (static recovery limit) averaged 14.9 +/- 1.4 degrees (mean +/- SD). The maximum initial lean angle where they could recover balance after the tether was unexpectedly released and the ankles were initially relaxed (dynamic recovery limit) averaged 5.9 +/- 1.1 degrees, or 60 +/- 11% smaller than the static recovery limit. Peak ankle torque did not differ significantly between the two conditions (and averaged 116 +/- 32 Nm), indicating the strong effect on recovery ability of latencies in the onset and subsequent rates of torque generation (which averaged 99 +/- 13 ms and 372 +/- 267 N. m/s, respectively). Additional experiments indicated that dynamic recovery limits increased 11 +/- 14% with increases in the baseline ankle torques prior to release (from an average value of 31 +/- 18 to 54 +/- 24 N. m). These trends are in agreement with predictions from a computer simulation based on an inverted pendulum model, which illustrate the specific combinations of baseline ankle torque, rate of torque generation, and peak ankle torque that are required to attain target recovery limits.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare the voluntary and evoked, absolute and normalized leg extension rates of torque development (RTD) and rates of rise in electromyography (RER) during commonly reported time intervals in young and old men. Fourteen young men (21.9±3.2years) and 16 older men (72.3±7.3years) completed three evoked and three voluntary isometric leg extension muscle actions to quantify absolute voluntary (peak, 30, 50, 100, and 200ms) and evoked (peak, 30, 50, and 100ms) RTD and RER. All RTD values were normalized (nRTD) to peak torque, while RER values were normalized (nRER) to peak-to-peak M-wave amplitude (MPP). Absolute voluntary RTDs and RERs were 58-122% and 70-76% greater (p≤0.05) for the young men, respectively. However, there were no age-related differences (p>0.05) for voluntary nRTDs, absolute and normalized evoked RTDs, or voluntary nRER. MPP and evoked RER and nRER were greater (p≤0.05) for the young men. In addition, voluntary RTD was more reliable in the young than the older men. Normalizing RTD to peak torque and RER to M-wave amplitude eliminated the age-related differences and suggested that the age-related declines in RTD and RER were a result of reduced muscle strength and M-wave amplitude, respectively. Therefore, our findings questioned the value of RTD and RER measurements in the various time intervals for explaining sarcopenia and suggested that maximal strength and M-wave amplitude may be sufficient.Experimental Gerontology 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.exger.2014.04.015 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In certain diseases, functional constraints establish a greater relationship with muscle power than muscle strength. However, in hereditary peripheral polyneuropathies, no such relationship was found in the literature. OBJECTIVE: In children with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT), to identify the impact of muscle strength and range of movement on the static/dynamic balance and standing long jump based on quantitative and functional variables. METHOD: The study analyzed 19 participants aged between 6 and 16 years, of both genders and with clinical diagnoses of CMT of different subtypes. Anthropometric data, muscle strength of the lower limbs (hand-held dynamometer), ankle and knee range of movement, balance (Pediatric Balance Scale) and standing long jump distance were obtained by standardized procedures. For the statistical analysis, Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were used. RESULTS: There was a strong positive correlation between balance and the muscle strength of the right plantar flexors (r=0.61) and dorsiflexors (r=0.59) and a moderate correlation between balance and the muscle strength of inversion (r=0.41) and eversion of the right foot (r=0.44). For the long jump and range of movement, there was a weak positive correlation with right and left plantar flexion (r=0.20 and r=0.12, respectively) and left popliteal angle (r=0.25), and a poor negative correlation with left dorsiflexion (r=-0.15). CONCLUSIONS: The data on the patients analyzed suggests that the maintenance of distal muscle strength favors performance during balance tasks, while limitations in the range of movement of the legs seem not to be enough to influence the performance of the horizontal long jump.Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia 07/2014; DOI:10.1590/bjpt-rbf.2014.0055 · 0.98 Impact Factor