Roles of Toll-Like Receptors in C-C Chemokine Production by Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Research Institute for Disease Mechanism and Control, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 4.92). 09/2002; 169(4):2026-33. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.169.4.2026
Source: PubMed


Pyelonephritis, in which renal tubular epithelial cells are directly exposed to bacterial component, is a major predisposing cause of renal insufficiency. Although previous studies have suggested C-C chemokines are involved in the pathogenesis, the exact source and mechanisms of the chemokine secretion remain ambiguous. In this study, we evaluated the involvement of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in C-C chemokine production by mouse primary renal tubular epithelial cells (MTECs). MTECs constitutively expressed mRNA for TLR1, 2, 3, 4, and 6, but not for TLR5 or 9. MTECs also expressed MD-2, CD14, myeloid differentiation factor 88, and Toll receptor-IL-1R domain-containing adapter protein/myeloid differentiation factor 88-adapter-like. Synthetic lipid A and lipoprotein induced monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and RANTES production in MTECs, which strictly depend on TLR4 and TLR2, respectively. In contrast, MTECs were refractory to CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide in chemokine production, consistently with the absence of TLR9. LPS-mediated MCP-1 and RANTES production in MTECs was abolished by NF-kappaB inhibition, but unaffected by extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibition. In LPS-stimulated MTECs, inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase significantly decreased RANTES, but did not affect MCP-1 mRNA induction. Thus, MTECs have a distinct expression pattern of TLR and secrete C-C chemokines in response to direct stimulation with a set of bacterial components.

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Available from: Takeshi Kikuchi, Oct 07, 2015
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    • "So far TLR3 basal mRNA expression levels has been reported in various tissues like kidney, liver, spleen, etc. in number of fish species [36]–[38]. In the kidney we could localize the TLR3 mRNA to the epithelial cells in the kidney as shown in earlier reports [39]. The localization of the TLR3 mRNA by in-situ PCR and the basal levels of this receptor validate both the annotation and sequencing. "
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    ABSTRACT: From an immunologist perspective, sharks are an important group of jawed cartilaginous fishes and survey of the public database revealed a great gap in availability of large-scale sequence data for the group of Chondrichthyans the elasmobranchs. In an attempt to bridge this deficit we generated the transcriptome from the spleen and kidney tissues (a total of 1,606,172 transcripts) of the shark, Chiloscyllium griseum using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. With a cut off of > = 300 bp and an expression value of >1RPKM we used 43,385 transcripts for BLASTX analysis which revealed 17,548 transcripts matching to the NCBI nr database with an E-value of < = 10-5 and similarity score of 40%. The longest transcript was 16,974 bases with matched to HECT domain containing E3 ubiqutin protein ligase. MEGAN4 annotation pipeline revealed immune and signalling pathways including cell adhesion molecules, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, T-cell receptor signalling pathway and chemokine signaling pathway to be highly expressed in spleen, while different metabolism pathways such as amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism and xenobiotic biodegradation were highly expressed in kidney. Few of the candidate genes were selected to analyze their expression levels in various tissues by real-time PCR and also localization of a receptor by in-situ PCR to validate the prediction. We also predicted the domains structures of some of the identified pattern recognition receptors, their phylogenetic relationship with lower and higher vertebrates and the complete downstream signaling mediators of classical dsRNA signaling pathway. The generated transcriptome will be a valuable resource to further genetic and genomic research in elasmobranchs.
    PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e100018. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0100018 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "In the kidney, the tubular epithelial cells and mesangial cells express TLR1 through TLR4 and TLR6.18 The TLR2 protein expression has been demonstrated in many cell types in the kidney, including renal tubules of the outer stripe of the medulla, glomeruli, and in the renal vasculature. "
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    ABSTRACT: The innate immune system plays an important role as a first response to tissue injury. This first response is carried out via germline-encoded receptors. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the first identified and best studied family of pattern recognition receptors. TLRs are expressed on a variety of cell types, including epithelial cells, endothelia, dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages, and B- and T-cells. TLRs initiate innate immune responses and concurrently shape the subsequent adaptive immune response. They are sensors of both pathogens, through the exogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and tissue injury, through the endogenous danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). TLR signaling is critical in defending against invading microorganisms; however, sustained receptor activation is also implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Ischemic kidney injury involves early TLR-driven immunopathology, and the resolution of inflammation is needed for rapid regeneration of injured tubule cells. Notably, the activation of TLRs also has been implicated in epithelial repair. This review focuses on the role of TLRs and their endogenous ligands within the inflammatory response of acute kidney injury.
    International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease 06/2014; 7:241-51. DOI:10.2147/IJNRD.S37891
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    • "TLRs are expressed by intrinsic kidney cells which are known to be important in the pathogenesis of DN. TECs are an important source of cytokines in kidney disease [8], [21]. TLR4 signalling triggers TEC production of CCL2 and consequent macrophage recruitment in ischemia-reperfusion injury [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Toll like receptor (TLR) 4 has been reported to promote inflammation in diabetic nephropathy. However the role of TLR4 in the complicated pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy is not understood. In this study, we report elevated expression of TLR4, its endogenous ligands and downstream cytokines, chemokines and fibrogenic genes in diabetic nephropathy in WT mice with streptozotocin (STZ) diabetes. Subsequently, we demonstrated that TLR4-/- mice were protected against the development of diabetic nephropathy, exhibiting less albuminuria, inflammation, glomerular hypertrophy and hypercellularity, podocyte and tubular injury as compared to diabetic wild-type controls. Marked reductions in interstitial collagen deposition, myofibroblast activation (α-SMA) and expression of fibrogenic genes (TGF-β and fibronectin) were also evident in TLR4 deficient mice. Consistent with our in vivo results, high glucose directly promoted TLR4 activation in podocytes and tubular epithelial cells in vitro, resulting in NF-κB activation and consequent inflammatory and fibrogenic responses. Our data indicate that TLR4 activation may promote inflammation, podocyte and tubular epithelial cell injury and interstitial fibrosis, suggesting TLR4 is a potential therapeutic target for diabetic nephropathy.
    PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e97985. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0097985 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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