Low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatases: small, but smart.
ABSTRACT Low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatases (LMW-PTPs) are a family of 18-kDa enzymes involved in cell growth regulation. Despite very limited sequence similarity to the PTP superfamily, they display a conserved signature motif in the catalytic site. LMW-PTP associates and dephosphorylate many growth factor receptors, such as platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGF-r), insulin receptor and ephrin receptor, thus downregulating many of the tyrosine kinase receptor functions that lead to cell division. In particular, LMW-PTP acts on both growth-factor-induced mitosis, through dephosphorylation of activated PDGF-r, and on cytoskeleton rearrangement, through dephosphorylation of p190RhoGAP and the consequent regulation of the small GTPase Rho. LMW-PTP activity is modulated by tyrosine phosphorylation on two specific residues, each of them with specific characteristics. LMW-PTP activity on specific substrates depends also on its localization. Moreover, LMW-PTP is reversibly oxidized during growth factor signaling, leading to inhibition of its enzymatic activity. Recovery of phosphatase activity depends on the availability of reduced glutathione and involves the formation of an S-S bridge between the two catalytic site cysteines. Furthermore, studies on the redox state of LMW-PTP in contact-inhibited cells and in mature myoblasts suggest that LMW-PTP is a general and versatile modulator of growth inhibition.
SourceAvailable from: Kirstin Hobiger[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The transmembrane protein Ci-VSP from the ascidian Ciona intestinalis was described as first member of a fascinating family of enzymes, the voltage sensitive phosphatases (VSPs). Ci-VSP and its voltage-activated homologs from other species are stimulated by positive membrane potentials and dephosphorylate the head groups of negatively charged phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs). In doing so, VSPs act as control centers at the cytosolic membrane surface, because they intervene in signaling cascades that are mediated by PIP lipids. The characteristic motif CX5RT/S in the active site classifies VSPs as members of the huge family of cysteine-based protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Although PTPs have already been well characterized regarding both, structure and function, their relationship to VSPs has drawn only limited attention so far. Therefore, the intention of this review is to give a short overview about the extensive knowledge about PTPs in relation to the facts known about VSPs. Here, we concentrate on the structural features of the catalytic domain which are similar between both classes of phosphatases and their consequences for the enzymatic function. By discussing results obtained from crystal structures, molecular dynamics simulations, and mutagenesis studies, a possible mechanism for the catalytic cycle of VSPs is presented based on that one proposed for PTPs. In this way, we want to link the knowledge about the catalytic activity of VSPs and PTPs.Frontiers in Pharmacology 01/2015; 6(20). DOI:10.3389/fphar.2015.00020
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ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic cellular machineries are intricately regulated by several molecular mechanisms involving transcriptional control, post-translational control and post-translational modifications of proteins (PTMs). Reversible protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation process, which involves kinases as well as phosphatases, represents an important regulatory mechanism for diverse pathways and systems in all organisms including human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Earlier analysis on P. falciparum protein-phosphatome revealed presence of 34 phosphatases in Plasmodium genome. Recently, we re-analysed P. falciparum phosphatome aimed at identifying parasite specific phosphatases. Plasmodium database (PlasmoDB 9.2) search, combined with PFAM and CDD searches, revealed 67 candidate phosphatases in P. falciparum. While this number is far less than the number of phosphatases present in Homo sapiens, it is almost the same as in other Plasmodium species. These Plasmodium phosphatase proteins were classified into 13 super families based on NCBI CDD search. Analysis of proteins expression profiles of the 67 phosphatases revealed that 44 phosphatases are expressed in both schizont as well as gametocytes stages. Fourteen phosphatases are common in schizont, ring and trophozoite stages, four phosphatases are restricted to gametocytes, whereas another three restricted to schizont stage. The phylogenetic trees for each of the known phosphatase super families reveal a considerable phylogenetic closeness amongst apicomplexan organisms and a considerable phylogenetic distance with other eukaryotic model organisms included in the study. The GO assignments and predicted interaction partners of the parasite phosphatases indicate its important role in diverse cellular processes. In the study presented here, we reviewed the P. falciparum phosphatome to show presence of 67 candidate phosphatases in P. falciparum genomes/proteomes. Intriguingly, amongst these phosphatases, we could identify six Plasmodium specific phosphatases and 33 putative phosphatases that do not have human orthologs, thereby suggesting that these phosphatases have the potential to be explored as novel antimalarial drug targets.BMC Genomics 11/2014; 15(1):1024. DOI:10.1186/1471-2164-15-1024 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies showed that the serum alkaline phosphatase is an independent predictor of the coronary artery disease (CAD). In this work, we aimed to summarize the association between three phosphatase related single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs12526453, rs11066301 and rs3828329) and the risk of CAD in Han Chinese. Our results showed that the rs3828329 of the ACP1 gene was closely related to the risk of CAD in Han Chinese (OR = 1.45, p = 0.0006). This significant association of rs3828329 with CAD was only found in the females (Additive model: OR = 1.80, p = 0.001; dominant model: OR = 1.69, p = 0.03; recessive model: OR = 1.96, p = 0.0008). Moreover, rs3828329 was likely to exert its effect in females aged 65 years and older (OR = 2.27, p = 0.001). Further meta-analyses showed that the rs12526453 of PHACTR11 gene (OR = 1.14, p < 0.0001, random-effect method) and the rs11066301 of PTPN11 gene (OR = 1.15, p < 0.0001, fixed-effects method) were associated with CAD risk in multiple populations. Our results showed that the polymorphisms rs12526453 and rs11066301 are significantly associated with the CAD risk in multiple populations. The rs3828329 of ACP1 gene is also a risk factor of CAD in Han Chinese females aged 65 years and older.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 08/2014; 15(8):14058-76. DOI:10.3390/ijms150814058 · 2.34 Impact Factor