Progress and controversy in the study of posttraumatic stress disorder.

Department of Psychology, Harvard University, 33 Kirkland Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.
Annual Review of Psychology (Impact Factor: 20.53). 02/2003; 54:229-52. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145112
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been notable for controversy as well as progress. This article concerns the evidence bearing on the most contentious issues in the field of traumatic stress: broadening of the definition of trauma, problems with the dose-response model of PTSD, distortion in the recollection of trauma, concerns about "phony combat vets," psychologically toxic guilt as a traumatic stressor, risk factors for PTSD, possible brain-damaging effects of stress hormones, recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse, and the politics of trauma.

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    Mental Health Law and Policy Journal. 04/2014; 3(2):373-416.
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to address how context for malingering and the provision of incentives influence malingered symptom profiles of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Design/methodology/approach ‐ A 2 (case context)×3 (incentive) factorial design was utilized. Participants (n=298) were given an incentive (positive, negative, or no incentive), randomly assigned to a criminal or civil context, and asked to provide a fake claim of child abuse with corresponding malingered symptoms of PTSD. Under these conditions, participants completed several questionnaires pertaining to symptoms of trauma and PTSD. Findings ‐ Results indicated that negative incentives were primarily associated with lower symptom scores. Therefore, "having something to lose" may result in more constrained (and realistic) symptom reports relative to exaggeration evidenced with positive incentives. Originality/value ‐ These results have implications for forensic settings where malingered claims of PTSD are common and incentives for such claims (e.g. having something to gain or lose) frequently exist. Previous studies have failed to address incentives (positive and negative) in relation to a crime (i.e. abuse) that can span both criminal and civil contexts.
    Journal of Criminal Psychology. 03/2014; 4(1).
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