Phenotypic characteristics of adipocytes generated from Meckel's chondrocytes in response to chick serum in vitro.
ABSTRACT When present in the culture medium, chick serum (CKS) modulated the phenotypic change from chondrocytes of Meckel's cartilage to adipocytes in vitro, as revealed by light and electron microscopy, the incorporation of BrdU, and immunocytochemistry. CKS inhibited DNA synthesis in chondrocytes and the proliferation of these cells, while it facilitated the differentiation to adipocytes. CKS contributed to phenotypic changes in undifferentiated chondrocytes, but did not affect the characteristics of differentiated chondrocytes. Electron microscopy revealed that the lipid droplets in adipocytes were enclosed by limiting membranes that fused to yield larger lipid droplets. Immunocytochemical staining of adipocytes with stage-specific antibodies revealed the presence of immunoreactive uncoupling protein (UCP-1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARgamma) in immature adipocytes, and leptin and glucose transporter (Glut-4) in mature adipocytes. The adipocytes that were formed in the present study were multilocular adipocytes that contained many small lipid droplets, but in many ways they resembled white adipocytes. CKS contains a high level of estrogen, compared with fetal bovine serum, and it is possible that estrogen might have induced the differentiation to adipocytes.
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ABSTRACT: We established a clonal preadispose cell line from newborn mouse calvaria. Cells of this cell line, designated MC3T3-G2/PA6, had the capacity to convert to adipose cells, to accumulate triglycerides in their cytoplasm, and to mature to differentiated fat cells in a resting state. This adipose conversion was markedly accelerated by addition of dexamethasone, which was the most potent inducer among the steroid hormones tested. The presence of dexamethasone was needed during the steroid hormones tested. The presence of dexamethasone was needed during logarithmic growth phase for maximal conversion. The frequency of adipose conversion was dependent on exposure time to the hormone, but cells already committed to differentiation continued to accumulate lipid and developed into mature adipose cell even in its absence. This indicates that the hormone accelerates the initiation of the adipose conversion, but is not required for the ongoing conversion process. In fact, it was rather inhibitory for the process of fat accumulation. Insulin alone slightly inhibited the adipose conversion, but its combination with dexamethasone neutralized the above inhibitory effect of dexamethasone. The responsiveness of this cell line is consistent with that observed for mouse bone marrow preadipocytes in primary culture but differs from that for preadipose cell lines derived from extramedullary tissues. These results strongly suggest that the MC3T3-G2/PA6 cell line was derived from bone marrow.Journal of Cellular Physiology 08/1982; 112(1):83-8. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The localization of osteopontin (OP) was examined in Meckel's cartilage cells that bipotentially expressed cartilage and bone phenotypes during cellular transformation in vitro. Cultured cells were analyzed by in situ hybridization, immunostaining followed by light and electron microscopy, electron microscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. The combination of ultrastructural analysis and immunoperoxidase staining indicated that OP-synthesizing cells were cells that were autonomously undergoing a change from chondrocytes to bone-forming cells at the top of nodules. Double immunofluorescence staining of 2-week-old cultures revealed that OP was first synthesized by chondrocytic cells at the top of nodules. After further time in culture, the distribution of OP expanded from the central toward the peripheral regions of the nodules. Electron probe microanalysis revealed that the localization of OP was associated with matrices of calcified cartilage and osteoid nodules that contained calcium and phosphorus. Immunoperoxidase electron microscopy revealed that, in addition to the intracellular immunoreactivity in chondrocytes and small round cells that were undergoing transformation, matrix foci of calcospherites and matrix vesicles, in particular, included growing crystals that were immunopositive for OP. An intense signal due to mRNA for OP in 3-week-old cultures was detected in nodule-forming round cells, while fibroblastic cells, spreading in a monolayer over the periphery of nodules, were only weakly labeled. These findings indicate that OP might be expressed sequentially by chondrocytes and by cells that are transdifferentiating further and exhibit an osteocytic phenotype, and moreover, that expression of OP is closely associated with calcifying foci in the extracellular matrix.Histochemie 12/1998; 110(5):457-66. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: RCJ 3.1, a clonally derived cell population isolated from 21-d fetal rat calvaria, expresses the osteoblast-associated characteristics of polygonal morphology, a cAMP response to parathyroid hormone, synthesis of predominantly type I collagen, and the presence of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-regulated alkaline phosphatase activity. When cultured in the presence of ascorbic acid, sodium beta-glycerophosphate, and the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone, this clone differentiated in a time-dependent manner into four morphologically distinct phenotypes of known mesenchymal origin. Multinucleated muscle cells were observed as early as 9-10 d in culture, lipid-containing adipocytes formed after 12 d, chondrocyte nodules were observed after 16 d, and mineralized bone nodules formed after 21 d in culture. The differentiated cell types were characterized morphologically, histochemically, and immunohistochemically. The formation of adipocytes and chondrocytes was dependent upon the addition of dexamethasone; the muscle and bone phenotypes were also expressed at low frequency in the absence of dexamethasone. The sex steroid hormones progesterone and 17 beta-estradiol had no effect on differentiation in this system, suggesting that the effects of dexamethasone represent effects specific for glucocorticosteroids. Increasing concentrations of dexamethasone (10(-9)-10(-6) M) increased the numbers of myotubes, adipocytes, and chondrocytes; however, when present continuously for 35 d, the lower concentrations appeared to better maintain the muscle and adipocyte phenotypes. Bone nodules were not quantitated because the frequency of bone nodule formation was too low. Single cells obtained by plating RCJ 3.1 cells at limiting dilutions in the presence of dexamethasone, were shown to give rise to subclones that could differentiate into either single or multiple phenotypes. Thus, the data suggest that this clonal cell line contains subpopulations of mesenchymal progenitor cells which can, under the influence of glucocorticoid hormones, differentiate in vitro into four distinct cell types. It is, therefore, a unique cell line which will be of great use in the study of the regulation of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation.The Journal of Cell Biology 07/1988; 106(6):2139-51. · 10.82 Impact Factor