Developmental and spatial expression pattern of syntaxin 13 in the mouse central nervous system.
ABSTRACT Vesicular transport involves SNARE (soluble- N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor-attachment-protein-receptor) proteins on transport vesicles and on target membranes. Syntaxin 13 is a SNARE enriched in brain, associated with recycling endosomes; its overexpression in PC12 cells promotes neurite outgrowth. This suggests an important role for receptor recycling during neuronal differentiation. Here we describe the spatiotemporal pattern of syntaxin 13 expression during mouse brain development. During early embryogenesis (E12-E15), it was found in the forebrain ventricular zone and in primary motor and sensory neurons in the brainstem, spinal cord and sensory ganglia. In the forebrain at E15, syntaxin 13 was not detected in neuroblasts in the intermediate zone of the embryonic hemispheric wall, while there was labeling in cortical neurons in deeper layers starting at E15-18, and progressively in later-generated neurons up to layer II around P6. Syntaxin 13 reached maximal expression in all brain divisions at about P7, followed by a decrease, with heterogeneous neuron populations displaying various staining intensities in adult brain. While usually restricted to the soma of neurons, we transiently detected syntaxin 13 in dendrites of pyramidal neurons during the first postnatal week. In conclusion, the developmentally regulated syntaxin 13 expression in various neuronal populations is consistent with its involvement in endocytic trafficking and neurite outgrowth.
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ABSTRACT: Alpha-taxilin has been identified as a binding partner of syntaxin family members and thus has been proposed to function in syntaxin-mediated intracellular vesicle trafficking. However, the lack of detailed information concerning the cellular and subcellular localization of alpha-taxilin impedes an understanding of the role of this protein. In the present study, we characterized alpha-taxilin-expressing cells in the rat CNS with a specific antibody. During embryonic development, alpha-taxilin was prominently expressed in nestin-positive neural stem cells in vivo and in vitro. As CNS development proceeded, the alpha-taxilin expression level was rapidly down-regulated. In the postnatal CNS, alpha-taxilin expression was almost confined to the neuronal lineage, with the highest levels of expression in motor neurons within the brainstem nuclei and spinal cord and in primary sensory neurons in mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus. At the cellular level, alpha-taxilin was preferentially located in Nissl substance-like structures with a tigroid or globular morphology within the soma and proximal to dendrites, but it was excluded from terminals. Combined staining with propidium iodide demonstrated that alpha-taxilin distribution overlapped with the cytoplasmic compartment enriched in RNA species, suggesting a close association of alpha-taxilin with actively translating ribosomes or polysomes in neurons. In agreement with this, a recent study indicated the preferential binding of alpha-taxilin to the nascent polypeptide-associated complex (alphaNAC), a dynamic component of the ribosomal exit tunnel in eukaryotic cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that alpha-taxilin plays multiple roles in the generation and maintenance of neurons through modulation of the NAC-mediated translational machinary and/or the syntaxin-mediated vesicle traffic in the soma.The Journal of Comparative Neurology 09/2008; 511(1):65-80. · 3.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The myelin proteolipid gene encodes two sets of proteins, the classic PLP and DM20 and the sr (soma-restricted)-PLP and sr-DM20. Unlike the classic proteolipids, the sr-products are expressed in both neurons and oligodendrocytes (OLs) and are not components of the myelin sheath. In OLs, the sr-isoforms are associated with endosomes and recycling vesicles indicating a possible nonmyelin function for these proteins. In this study, a purified antibody specific for the sr-products was used to examine the expression of these proteins during the development of the mouse brain. We found that while sr-PLP and sr-DM20 are expressed in OLs, the highest levels of immunoreactivity were found in neuronal populations. During early embryonic development (E13-E15), sr-proteolipids were detected in the dorsal root ganglion and motor neurons in the spinal cord. By E17, immunostaining for sr-PLP and sr-DM20 in the brain increased dramatically. The highest levels of immunoreactivity were found during the first and second weeks postnatal after which staining intensity declined to adult levels and the pattern of expression was more restricted. Robust staining persisted in many neuronal populations including nuclei in the hindbrain, Purkinje and granule neurons in the cerebellum, pyramidal cells in the cortex and mitral cells in the olfactory bulb. The spatial and temporal pattern of sr-PLP and sr-DM20 expression is very similar to that of the endosomal protein, syntaxin 13, consistent with the finding that the sr-PLPs may play a role in vesicular transport in neurons.Developmental Neuroscience 01/2003; 25(2-4):96-104. · 2.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the present study, we generated a systematic overview of the expression pattern and assembly profile of synaptic membrane proteins in ribbon synapses of the developing mouse retina. Using indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, we analyzed the spatial and temporal distribution of 11 important membrane and membrane-associated synaptic proteins (syntaxin 1/3, SNAP-25, synaptobrevin 2, synaptogyrin, synaptotagmin I, SV2A, SV2B, Rab3A, clathrin light chains, CSP and neuroligin I) during synaptogenesis. The temporospatial distribution of these synaptic proteins was "normalized" by the simultaneous visualization of the synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin, which served as an internal reference protein. We found that expression of various synaptic membrane proteins started at different time points and changed progressively during development. At early stages of development synaptic vesicle membrane proteins at extrasynaptic locations did not always colocalize with synaptophysin, indicating that these proteins probably do not reside in the same transport vesicles. Despite a non-synchronized onset of protein expression, clustering and colocalization of all synaptic membrane proteins at ribbon synapses roughly occurred in the same time window (between day 4 after birth, P4, and P5). Thus, the basic synaptic membrane machinery is already present in ribbon synapses before the well-known complete morphological maturation of ribbon synapses between P7 and P12. We conclude that ribbon synapse formation is a multistep process in which the concerted recruitment of synaptic membrane proteins is a relatively early event and clearly not the final step.Cell and Tissue Research 03/2003; 311(2):159-73. · 3.33 Impact Factor